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Film & Culture Chapter 8
Terms in this set (15)
The process by which the editor combines and coordinates individual shots into a cinematic whole; the basic creative force of cinema.
Also known as cutting. The actual joining together of two shots. The editor must first cut (or splice) each shot from its respective roll of film before gluing or taping all the shots together.
A device for presenting or reawakening the memory of the camera, a character, the audience—or all three—in which the action cuts from the narrative present to a past event, which may or may not have already appeared in the movie either directly or through inference. Compare flashforward.
A device for presenting the anticipation of the camera, a character, the audience— or all three—in which the action cuts from the narrative present to a future time, one in which, for example, the omniscient camera reveals directly or a character imagines, from his or her point of view, what is going to happen. Compare flashback.
In filmmaking, generally an omission of time—the time that separates one shot from another—to create dramatic or comedic impact.
1. In France, the word for editing, from the verb monter, "to assemble or put together." 2. In the former Soviet Union in the 1920s, the various forms of editing that expressed ideas developed by theorists and filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein. 3. In Hollywood, beginning in the 1930s, a sequence of shots, often with superimpositions and optical effects, showing a condensed series of events.
A style of editing (now dominant throughout the world) that seeks to achieve logic, smoothness, sequential flow, and the temporal and spatial orientation of viewers to what they see on the screen. Continuity editing ensures the flow from shot to shot; creates a rhythm based on the relationship between cinematic space and cinematic time; creates filmic unity (beginning, middle, and end); and establishes and resolves a problem. In short, continuity editing tells a story as clearly and coherently as possible. Compare discontinuity editing.
A style of editing—less widely used than continuity editing, often but not exclusively in experimental films—that joins shots A and B to produce an effect or meaning not even hinted at by either shot alone.
Also known as establishing shot or cover shot. A shot that ordinarily serves as a foundation for (and usually begins) a sequence by showing the location of ensuing action. Although usually a long shot or extreme long shot, a master shot may also be a medium shot or close-up that includes a sign or other cue to identify the location. Master shots are also called cover shots because the editor can repeat them later in the film to remind the audience of the location, thus "covering" the director by avoiding the need to reshoot.
Axis of action
Also known as the imaginary line, line of action, or 180-degree rule. The fundamental means by which filmmakers maintain consistent screen direction, orienting the viewer and ensuring a sense of the cinematic space in which the action occurs. The system assumes three things: (a) the action within a scene will always advance along a straight line, either from left to right or from right to left of the frame; (b) the camera will remain consistently on one side of that action; and (c) everyone on the production set will understand and adhere to this system.
One of the most prevalent and familiar of all editing patterns, consisting of parallel editing (crosscutting) between shots of different characters, usually in a conversation or confrontation. When used in continuity editing, the shots are typically framed over each character's shoulder to preserve screen direction.
Also called crosscutting and intercutting, although the three terms have slightly different meanings. The intercutting of two or more lines of action that occur simultaneously, a very familiar convention in chase or rescue sequences. See also crosscutting and intercutting. Compare split screen.
The removal of a portion of a film, resulting in an instantaneous advance in the action—a sudden, perhaps illogical, often disorienting ellipsis between two shots.
Optical wipe effect in which the wipe line is a circle; named after the iris of a camera. The iris-in begins with a small circle, which expands to a partial or full image; the iris-out begins with a large circle, which contracts to a smaller circle or total blackness.
A method, created either in the camera or during the editing process, of telling two stories at the same time by dividing the screen into different parts. Unlike parallel editing, which cuts back and forth between shots for contrast, the split screen can tell multiple stories within the same frame.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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