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English Language Arts portion: Vocabulary


learning strategy that young children frequently use to replicate someone's behavior's, actions, phrases, ect.


the study of the sound system of a language


the basic units of sound

6 Language components

phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, semantics, and pragmatics


the study of the structure of words and word formations


the smallest representation of meaning


entails the ways in which words are organized and arranged in a language


refers to the vocabulary of a language


refers to the way that meaning is conveyed in a language through the use of it's vocabulary


refers to the implied meaning of words and ideas


Ex: It's raining cats and dogs
Amelia Bedelia


refers to the literal meaning of words and ideas
Dictionary Meaning


describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication

Stages of Development: Babbling or Pre-Language Stage

0-6 months: send and receive messages; use crying to communicate; identify voices of parents and family members

Stages of Development: Holophrastic One Word Stage

11-19 months: begin imitating inflections and facial expressions of adults. Recognize their name and follow simple instructions

Stages of Development: Two word stage

13-24 months

Stages of Development: Telegraphic Stage

18-27 months Goes beyond the two word stage.

Stages of Development: Ages Two to Three years

Age 2: 200-300 words in the linguistic repertoire and can generally produce short sentences
Age 3: 900-1,000 words
Children begin to request instead of demand, use courteous vocabulary and begin following conversation formats

Age 4

1,500 words in their speaking repertoire; use more complex sentence structures. Able to understand more than what they are able to verbalize .

Age 5

2,100 words and a working knowledge of the grammar of the language. Beginning to understanding time concepts and use verb accordingly

Age 6 and 7

Speaking vocabulary of about 2,100 words and comprehension vocabulary or more than 20,000 words. Speech is fluent and clear.

Ages 8 to 12

Continues to grow and improve as their communication needs change from using language to have their needs met, to becoming language makers in academic settings.

Phonation Disorder

describes any kind of abnormality in the vibration of the vocal fold

Resonance Disorder

describes abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract


Characterized by multiple false starts or the inability to produce the intended sounds


occurs when children try to communicate in an excessively fast mode that makes comprehension difficult


a term used when children or adults produce /s/, /sh/, /z/, and /ch/ with their tongue between the upper and lower teeth.

Language Processing Disorders

generally caused by a brain-based disturbance called aphasia. Three types of aphasia are known.

Receptive aphasia

results from a lesion to a region in the upper back part of the temporal lobe of the brain

Expressive aphasia

results from damage to the lower back part of the frontal lobe.

Global aphasia

a brain based disorder that affects both the receptive and expressive features of the language

Dramatic Play

using prompts is an ideal activity to develop communication. Students are given open opportunities to role play by resembling real-life situations.

Language Play

involves the use of language in rhyme, alliteration, songs, and repeating patterns to amuse children. Tongue twisters, nursery rhymes, poems, and stories.

Show and Tell

children bring artifacts and personal items to class. Children show the object and are expected to describe its features to the class

Puppet Show

hand, finger, and string can be used to promote communication and confidence among children

Pair Interview

additional strategy that can be used to promote oral communication

Promote the development of listening skills by

implementing listening activities as a routine in the daily schedule

Phonemic Awareness

refers to a child's ability to understand that words have smaller components called sounds, and that these sounds together create syllables and words

Phonological Awareness

the ability to recognize and manipulate components of the sound system of a language. Includes the ability to segment words into smaller units like syllables and phonemes. Identify and separate words within a sentence, identify stress in individual words, and identify the intonation pattern used in sentences.


refers to conceptualize and separate words into their basic pronunciation components, which are syllables. Teachers often use clapping to indicate syllable boundaries


the basic unit of a syllable; syllables influence the rhythm of the language, poetic meter, and word stress

Phonemic Stress

can be taught through the use of nursery rhymes, short poems, or stories like the traditional Mother Goose.


a technique used to emphasize phonemes by using successive words that begin with the same constant sound or letter: ex Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers

Word Stress

Main Stress and Secondary Stress; word stress can affect the ability to understand words and can also alter meaning

Intonation Patterns

describes the pitch contour of a phrase or a sentence that is used to change the meaning of the sentence.

Onset and rhymes

ring, sing, spring...

Alphabetic Principle

the ability to connect letters with sounds, and to create words based on these associations.

Pre-Alphabetic Phrase

children can identify logos like McDonalds and Wal-Mart by their design

Partial Alphabetic Phase

children at home get exposed to the alphabet song; exposed to alphabet block playing and concrete letter objects that are typical in early childhood programs. Connecting initial letter with the sound of the names of peers.

Full Alphabetic Phase

children begin making connections between the letters, the sounds, that they represent, and the actual meaning of the word.

Consolidated Alphabetic Stage

The last stage of development, children begin conceptualizing that they can use components of words that they know to decode new words.


represent multiple phonemes...ex: the grapheme s can represent multiple phonemes cars- /z/, calls- /z/, sugar- /sh/, mission-/sh/, and walks-/s/

Pictographic writing system

words, ideas, and concepts are represented with a visual or image. First type of written language developed in the history of civilizations

Syllabic writing system

syllables are depicted through the use of unique symbols

Alphabetic writing system

uses the sounds of the language as a basic unit for writing


ex: ch-, gh-, gn-, kn-, -ght, pn-, ps-, rh-, wr-, sc-

Emergent Readers

understand that print contains meaningful information; uses illustrations embedded in the texts to support comprehension; listens and follows a story attentively and can easily develop an awareness of the story structure; represents the main idea of a story through drawings and can retell major events in the story with or without illustrations; uses illustrations and prior experiences to make predictions and to support comprehension; possess some degree of phonemic awareness; able to connect the initial letter of words with its representing phoneme.

Early Readers

have mastered reading readiness skills and are beginning to read simple text with some degree of success; begin using the cuing system to confirm information in the text; rely on grapho-phonemic information to sound out words as a decoding strategy; show preference for certain stories; begin noticing punctuation and capitalization, retell stories read to them with detail and accuracy, engage in discussion of stories, and engage in self correction.

Fluent Readers

summarize the part of the story that they have read, and make inferences about the content; handle more challenging vocabulary through the use of context clues; begin using literary terms and grammar concepts; enjoy reading for information and pleasure; they soon become fluent and independent readers.


a method of teaching beginners to read and pronounce words by teaching them the phonetic value of letters, letter groups, and syllables.

Miscue Analysis

a process that begins with a child reading a selection orally, and an examiner noting variations of the oral reading from the printed text.

Balanced Literacy Program

teacher directed/reading to students (read aloud); shared reading, guided reading, and reading workshops; student-directed reading and independent reading; teacher directed writing, writing to/for students as part of the classroom routines, and process writing; shared writing as in language experience/interactive writing , writing workshops, student-directed writing and independent writing activities.


a particular type of literature that can be classified in multiple categories.

Picture Book

the illustrations and the text work together to communicate the story.

Traditional Literature

comprises the stories that have their roots in the oral tradition of storytelling and have been handed down from generation to generation.

Multicultural Literature

a term used to describe literature other than traditional European stories. Stories from countries throughout the world that are written by people from those countries.

Authentic Multicultural

describe literature written by members of a particular cultural group to represent their own historical development and culture

Modern Fantasy

a genre that presents make believe stories that are the product of the author's imagination

Historical Fiction

is fiction that is set in the past. This type of fictions allows children to live vicariously in times and places they cannot experience in any other way.

Nonfiction books

have the real world as their point of origin.


a genre that deals with the lives of real people.


genre that deals with the life of the author.


genre that is difficult to define for children

Terminology to describe the characters of the story

protagonist, antagonist or villain, animals, and humans

Point of View

first person: the is one of the characters of the story and the narrator; omniscient point of view: narrator is an outsider who knows what the characters are thinking or feeling; limited point of view: narrator is not a character in the story.


refers to the geographical location and the general environment and historical circumstances of the story


tells us what happens and the theme tells us why it happens

Literary Style

Exposition, Dialogue, Vocabulary, Imagery, Tone, Analysis of the story

Print carries


To teach the connection between spoken and written words..

teacher should use a big book and point to each as he or she reads the story aloud

To teach critical analysis of literature

use a story tree or story map

Story Map contains

setting, characters, plot, and resolution

Word Analysis

refers to the way children approach a written word in order to decode and obtain meaning from it

Sight Words

words that occur very frequently in print

Context clues

Semantic, syntactic, and structural

Semantic Clues

require a child to think about the meanings to words and what is already known about the topic being read: ex Hawks: words associated predator, carnivorous, food chain, and wingspan.

Syntactic Clues

the word order in a sentence might also provide clues to readers

Structural Clues

pay attention to letter groups because there are many groups of letters that frequently occur within words, which are called morphemes.


same sound and same spelling but offer different meanings
rock: a stone; type of music


words that sound the same but are spelled differently
bear bare


words that are spelled the same way but have more than one pronunciation and different meanings. Bow -part of a ship or bend to salute, decorative knot used in clothing

Compound Words

created when two independent words are joined to create a new word

Reading Fluency

the ability to decode words quickly and accurately in order to read text with the appropriate word stress, pitch, and intonation pattern.


the quick and accurate recognition of letters, words, and language conventions

Reading Fluency WPM

1st grade: 60 WPM
than increase by 10 WPM each grade level
Formula: words read in a minute, minus errors, equals words per minute

Strategies to Promote reading fluency

Guided Oral Repeated Reading, Choral Reading, Pairing Students, Interactive Computer Programs, Silent Sustained Reading, and Readers' Theatre

2nd graders

should be guided to discontinue pointing to words

Running record

assessment strategy to assess students' word identification skills and fluency in oral reading

Fluency involves

rate, accuracy, and intonation

Pre-Reading activities

prior knowledge is activated, new prior knowledge is formed, and interest is stirred up

Story Re-Telling

a strategy used with young children to assess listening and reading comprehension


indicates that only one answer is correct


indicates that more than one answer is correct

Cloze test

a passage with omitted words the test taker must supply

Semantic Mapping

can also be used as a strategy to make direct connections between the vocabulary or words they are learning in the classroom and those that they may have seen, heard, or learned priorly.

Four writing skills

speaking, listening, reading, and writing

Writing symbolizes...


Reading levels

95% student is at independent level
94%-90% instructional level
89% or fewer child's frustration level

Running Record

assess students word identification skills and fluency in oral reading.

Informal Reading Inventories

Comprehension questions, retell a story, observations, checklist, anecdotal records, and portfolios

Print Media

used to disseminate information in print form such as that found in newspapers, magazines, and direct mail. Print media is static; that is, once it is published, the information cannot be changed.

Visual Media

incorporates the use of visual imagery to either complement or supplement the message being carried.

Electronic Media

requires the use of an external device such as a television, computer, or personal assistant device to display the information and images being presented.


a story or an account; it may recount an incident or a series of incidents. May be fiction or nonfiction

Descriptive writing

to provide information about a person, place, or thing. Powerful tool in advertisement.

Expository Writing

to explain and clarify ideas

Persuasive Writing

to convince the reader of something

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