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DCC HIST GEO 102 TEST 5
Delgado Historical Geology 201 Test 5
Terms in this set (83)
Mesozoic Periods Oldest to Youngest
Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous
Mesozoic era events
1) Pangea broke up
2) Atlantic Ocean formed
3) Petroleum accumulated around the world
4) Gold and or deposits were emplaced in plutons
Breakup of Pangea - Gondwana breaks apart, N & S America separate
Australia and Antartica separate, Mediterranean Sea Forms, Greenland is independent landmass
Climate during Pangea
Arid continental interiors, wet climates near bodies of water
Climate after Pangea breaks up
Decrease in temperature in northern continents.
Oceanic Circulation Pattern during Pangea
Simple pattern of circulation in single ocean and continent pairing
Oceanic Circulation Pattern after Pangea
Circulation accelerates and becomes more complex
Mesozoic History of North America (Triassic) - Eastern Region
Applachian orogeny eroded
Fault-block basins formed and eroded
dinosaur tracks found in Connecticut
The Newark Group
Areas along the east coast that, after erosion, had deposition and faulting
Mesozoic History of N.A.:Triassic Period - Gulf Coast Region
Was above sea level for most of the Triassic.
Mesozoic History of N.A.:Triassic Period - Western Region
Deep sea dotted with volcanic island arcs
Sonoma Orogeny (Triassic)
Unique formation of ocean rock thrusted on top of continental rock - collision of an island arc with SW North America.
Mesozoic History of N.A.: Jurassic - Eastern Region
Applachian erosion continues, low relief in area once considered mountainous
Mesozoic History of N.A.: Jurassic - Gulf Coast Region
Pacific Ocean water inundates Gulf and central North America - Gulf of Mexico: Evaporites formed.
Pacific Ocean water inundates Gulf and central North America - wide seaway in western N.A.
Gulf of Mexico formed
Pacific Ocean water filled in "bay"
Tropical Climate for the Gulf
Evaporite Deposits due to high temps and high evaporation
Mesozoic History of N.A.: Jurassic - Western Region
Cordilleran Orogeny begins.
Series of Mountain building events through the Cretaceous.
Sundance sea retreated, sandstones, mudstones, shales and conglomerates were deposited. Richest assemblage of dinosaur fossils.
Mesozoic History of N.A.: Cretaceous - Eastern Region
Appalachian Mountains is reduced further.
Mesozoic History of N.A.: Cretaceous - Gulf Coast Region
Evaporite deposition ends, transgression and regression coats Gulf bottom in sediment. Reef complexes form in Gulf
Early Cretaceous - Gulf
Reef deposits built up and were preserved - now a petroleum reservoir.
Mesozoic History of N.A.: Cretaceous: Western Region
Cordilleran Orogeny Continues
Three Phases of the Cordilleran Orogenies (oldest to youngest)
Nevadan Orogeny, Sevier Orogeny, Laramide Orogeny
Nevadan Orogeny - Late Jurassic into Cretaceous
Granite magma formed batholiths - The Sierra Nevadas - Western part of Cordilleran belt.
Mass of rocks suggest that the continental shelf, slope and deep sea were brought together
Cretaceous phase - numerous low angle thrust faults, north-south mountains along western N.A. & Alaska.
Late Cretaceous to Early Cenozoic phase of the Cordilleran orogeny; responsible for many structural features of the present-day Rocky Mountains
Why did volcanic arcs move eastward during the Cordilleran Orogeny?
Possibly caused by shift from high-angle to low-angle subduction.
Cretaceous Interior Seaway
A Late Cretaceous arm of the sea that effectively divided North America into two large landmasses
Age of reptiles
More Plants, fish and insects than reptiles in Mesozoic Era.
Who coined the term dinosaur
Sir Richard Owen - Fearfully Great Lizard
Mammals first evolved
Triassic (early Mesozoic) - small bodied until Cenozoic
In the Jurassic period birds evolved from
flowering vascular plants (Mesozoic) Dominated land ecosystems
Cretaceous Mass Extinction Event
Mass extinction occurred at the end of the Cretaceous
all non-avian dinosaurs were affected and set the stage for mammal species radiation
Distribution of continents & Seas during Mesozoic (Breakup of Pangea)
Affected Ocean circulation & climate, organism evolution, and caused fauna to evolve in isolation as continents separated.
What rebounded strongly after the end of the Permian Mass extinction?
Marine bivalves (oysters/clams), gastropods, and cephalopods
Diversified during Jurassic and Cretaceous Period
Foraminifera (single-celled consumers)
Went extinct at the end of the Cretaceous
Coccolithophores (primary producer phytoplankton)
microscopic algae with calcium carbonate shells, appeared during Cretaceous
Diatoms (primary producers with silica skeletons)
Appeared during Cretaceous, found in cool ocean waters and freshwater lakes.
Dino-flagellates (organic-walled phytoplankton)
Common during Mesozoic - found in warmer waters.
Osteichthyes (bony fish)
Abundant and most diverse - mostly ray-finned fish.
Sharks (cartilaginous fish)
Became more abundant during Mesozoic.
Amphibians (labyrinthodont -toothy)
Few survived the Permian extinction, completely extinct by end of Triassic
Frogs and salamanders
diverged during the Late Permian or Early Triassic
Seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms
(primary producers on land) dominated during Triassic and Jurassic
Appear in Mesozoic Era, remain widespread in tropical environments
Amniotes (Late Paleozoic)
Any vertebrate animal that produces amniote eggs; reptiles, birds, mammals evolved from common ancestor
Ruling reptiles - dinosaurs, crocodiles, pterosaurs and birds
Two distinct orders of dinosaurs
Ornithischia (bird hipped) and saurischia (lizard hipped)
Examples of Saurischians
Order of dinosaurs - lizardlike pelvis. IncludesTheropods (tiny to bipedal carnivores), sauropods (giant quadrupedal herbivores)
Ornithischians (bird hipped)
Order of dinosaurs - birdlike pelvis. Herbivoresonly, no teeth in front of mouth, bonelike tendons (stegoceras). Includes ornithopods, stegosaurs, ankylosaurs, pachycephalosaurs, and ceratopsians.
cold blooded (reptiles)
warm blooded (mammals and birds)
Common in Late Triassic - Cretaceous extinction. NOT dinosaurs, NOT ancestors of birds. Flying reptile that had a long finger to support a wing.
porpoise-like, could not get onto land, ate fish and cephlapods, birth to live young
long or short necked, possible gave birth on shore.
Related to Komodo dragon, ate fish, birds, smaller mosasaurs, invertebrates. Paddle like limbs. (marine lizards)
Most common freshwater predator by Jurassic
First evolved in Triassic
Appeared in Cretaceous
Four reptiles that survived the end of the Cretaceous extinctions
Crocodiles, turtles, lizards, and snakes
Oldest positively identified fossil bird-like animal, dinosaur-like anatomy: feathers and a wishbone, reptile-like teeth, claws and a long tail. Found in Germany.
most mamal-like Therapsids.
Distinction between reptiles and mammals
Mammals have more bones in inner ear and less jawbones than reptiles.
Monotremes - Middle Jurassic
egg-laying, includes modern spiny anteater and the platypus (Australia region)
Mammals - Middle Jurassic
including marsupials (pouched) and placentals (live birth)
Pangea - Supercontinent through what era
Climate of Mesozoic
Lacked strong north/south zonation like today.
Climate of Pangea
warm and tropical with some arid regions and temperate poles.
extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Period; the most devastating mass extinction the world has ever seen
One of the five largest extinctions. More than half of all species on the planet, including the dinosaurs.
cause of cretaceous extinction
1) Meteorite or asteroid cause widespread climatic change
2) Massive volcanic eruptions in India caused atmospheric disruptions
3) Global marine regression caused more seasonal climates.
Mesozoic Events - Triassic
1) Seas repopulated with invertebrates after Permian extinction.
2) Mammals evolved from cynodonts, cynodonts go extinct
3) Seedless vascular plants and gymnosperms are dominant
4) Climate is warm, temps mild, some areas arid.
Mesozoic Events - Jurassic
1) Increase in diversity of ammonites, cephalopods
2) First birds evolved
3) Great sauropod dinosaurs walked the Earth
4) Only plants were seedless gymnosperms and vascular plants
5) Warm and mile, some aridity
Mesozoic Lift - Cretaceious
1) Ammonites and belemnoids diversify before mass extinction
2) Placental and marsupial mammals emerge
3) Seedless plants and gymnosperms less abundant
4) Angiosperms evolve and rapidly diversify
5) Cloimate becomes more seasonable and cooler at end.
6) Mass extinction - Loss of dinosaurs, flying reptiles, marine reptiles, some marine invertebrates.
Any of the Mesozoic reptiles belonging to the orders Saurischia and Ornithischia.
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