a method of transferring a patient from bed to stretcher, during in which two or more rescuers curl the patient to their chests, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the stretcher.
direct ground lift
a method of lifting and carrying a patient from ground level to a stretcher in which two or more rescuers kneel, curl the patient to their chests, stand, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the stretcher.
a method of transferring a patient from bed to stretcher by grasping and pulling the loosened bottom sheet of the bed.
a method of lifting and carrying a patient during which one rescuer slips hands under the patient's armpits and grasps the wrists, while another rescuer grasps the patient's knees.
gripping with as much hand surface as possible in contact with object being lifted, all fingers bent at the same angle, hands at least 10 inches apart.
a lift from a squatting position with weight to be lifted close to the body, feet apart and flat on the ground, body weight on or just behind balls of feet, back locked in. The upper body is raised before the hips. Also called the squat-left position.
four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of a pain or injury: the right upper quadrant (RUQ), the left upper quadrant (LUQ), the right lower quadrant (RUQ), and the left lower quadrant (LLQ).
the pelvic socket into which the ball at the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint.
the standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this position, the body is standing erect, facing the observer, with arms down at the sides and the palms of the hands forward.
the largest artery in the body. It transports blood from the left ventricle to begin systemic circulation.
a small tube located near the junction of the small and large intestines in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, the function of which is not well understood. Its inflammation, called appendicitis, is a common cause of abdominal pain.
the two upper chambers of the heart. There is a right atrium (which receives unoxygenated blood returning from the body) and a left atrium (which receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs).
autonomic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor functions.
the force of blood against the walls of the blood vessels. Usually arterial blood pressure (the pressure in an artery) is measured. See also diastolic blood pressure; systolic blood pressure.
the two large sets of branches that come off the trachea and enter the lungs. There are right and left bronchi. Singular bronchus.
a thin-walled, microscopic blood vessel where oxygen/carbon dioxide and nutrient/waste exchange with the body's cells takes place.
cardiac conduction system
a system of specialized muscle tissues which conduct electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat.
the system made up of the heart (cardio) and the blood vessels (vascular0; the circulatory system.
the large neck arteries, one on each side of the neck, that carry blood from the heart to the head.
the ring-shaped structure that circles the trachea at the lower edge of the larynx.
the inner (second) layer of skin, rich in blood vessels and nerves, found beneath the epidermis.
the muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. A major muscle of respiration.
diastolic blood pressure
the pressure remaining in the arteries when the left ventricle of the heart is relaxed and refilling.
system by which food travels through the body and is digested, or broken down into absorbable forms.
system of glands that produce chemicals called hormones that help to regulate many body activities and functions.
a hormone produced by the body. As a medication it dilates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reactions.
a passive process in which the intercostal (rib) muscles and the diaphragm relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size and causing air to flow out of the lungs. Also called expiration.
inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients.
away from the head; usually compared with another structure that is closer to the head (e.g., the lips are inferior to the nose).
an active process in which the intercostal (rib) muscles and the diaphragm contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity and causing air to flow into the lungs. Also called inspiration.
muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled.
the muscular tube that removes water from waste products received from the small in testine and removes anything not absorbed by the body toward excretion from the body.
the largest internal organ of the body, produces bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assists in the metabolism of various substances in the body.
protrusion on the side of the ankle. The lateral malleolus, at the lower end of the fibula, is seen on the outer ankle; the medial malleolus, at the lower end of the tibia, is seen on the inner ankle.
an imaginary line drawn down the center of the body, dividing it into right and left halves.
the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement.
the system of brain, spinal cord, and nerves that govern sensation, movement, and thought.
a gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin and produces juices that assist in digestion of food in the duodenum of the small intestine.
the basin-shaped bony structure that supports the spine and is the point of proximal attachment for the lower extremities.
the supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the nerves that enter and leave the spinal cord and travel between the brain and organs without passing through the spinal cord.
the radial, brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral (outlying) points of the body.
the area directly posterior to the mouth and nose. It is made up of the oropharynx and the nasopharynx.
the vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
the rhythmic beats caused by the beating heart as waves of blood move through and expand the arteries.
red blood cells
components of the blood. They carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells.
the system of nose, mouth, throat, lungs, and muscles that brings oxygen into the body and expels carbon dioxide.
also known as hypoperfusion. The inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients. A life-threatening condition.
the muscular tube between the stomach and the large intestine, divided into the duodenum, the jejunum, and ileum, which receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues digestion. Nutrients are absorbed by the body through its walls.
an organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen that acts as a blood filtration system and a reservoir for reserves of blood.
systolic blood pressure
the pressure created in the arteries when the left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into circulation.
a position in which the patient's feet and legs are higher than the head. Also called shock position.
the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. These two major veins return blood from the body to the right atrium. (Venae cavae is plural, vena cava singular.)
the two lower chambers of the heart. There is a right ventricle (which sends oxygen-poor blood to the lungs) and a left ventricle (which sends oxygen-rich blood to the body).
white blood cells
components of the blood. They produce substances that help the body fight infection.
leaving a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transferred to someone with equal or greater medical training.
the obligation not to reveal information obtained about a patient except to other health-care professionals involved in the patient's care, or under subpoena, or in a court of law, or when the patient has signed a release of confidentiality.
the location where a crime has been committed or any place that evidence relating to a crime may be found.
do not resuscitate (DNR) order
a legal document, usually signed by the patient and his physician, which states that the patient has a terminal illness and does not wish to prolong life through resuscitative efforts.
consent given by adults who are of legal age and mentally competent to make a rational decision in regard to their medical well-being.
Good Samaritan laws
a series of laws, varying in each state, designed to provide limited legal protection for citizens and some health-care personnel when they are administering emergency care.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, a federal law protecting the privacy of patient-specific health care information and providing the patient with control over how this information is used and distributed.
the consent it is presumed a patient or patient's parent or guardian would give if they could, such as for an unconscious patient or a parent who cannot be contacted when care is needed.
a finding of failure to act properly in a situation in which there was a duty to act, needed care as would reasonably be expected of the EMT was not provided, and harm was caused to the patient as a result.
a person who has completed a legal document that allows for donation of organs and tissues in the event of death.
scope of practice
a set of regulations and ethical considerations that define the scope, or extent and limits, of the EMT's job.
critical incident stress management (CISM)
a comprehensive system that includes education and resources to both prevent stress and to deal with stress appropriately when it occurs. .
The removal or cleansing of dangerous chemicals and other dangerous or infectious materials.
personal protective equipment (PPE)
equipment that protects the EMS worker from infection and/or exposure to the dangers of rescue operations.
a strict form of infection control that is based on the assumption that all blood and other body fluids are infectious.
an EMT or other person authorized by a Medical Director to give medications and provide emergency care. The transfer of such authorization to a designated agent is an extension of the Medical Director's license to practice medicine.
Offline medical direction
consists of standing orders issued by the Medical Director that allow EMTs to give certain medications or perform certain procedures without speaking to the Medical Director or another physician.
On-line medical direction
consists of orders from the on-duty physician given directly to an EMT in the field by radio or telephone.
a physician who assumes the ultimate responsibility for the patient care aspects of the EMS system.
A system for telephone access to report emergencies. A dispatcher takes the information and alerts EMS or the fire or police departments as needed.
has the additional capability of automatically identifying the caller's phone number and location.
Lists of steps, such as assessments and interventions, to be taken in different situations. Protocols are developed by the Medical Director of an EMS system.
A process of continuous self-review with the purpose of identifying and correcting aspects of the system that require improvement.