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182 terms

Brady Emergency Care 11th Edition Mod One

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body mechanics
the proper use of the body to facilitate lifting and moving and prevent injury.
direct carry
a method of transferring a patient from bed to stretcher, during in which two or more rescuers curl the patient to their chests, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the stretcher.
direct ground lift
a method of lifting and carrying a patient from ground level to a stretcher in which two or more rescuers kneel, curl the patient to their chests, stand, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the stretcher.
draw-sheet method
a method of transferring a patient from bed to stretcher by grasping and pulling the loosened bottom sheet of the bed.
extremity lift
a method of lifting and carrying a patient during which one rescuer slips hands under the patient's armpits and grasps the wrists, while another rescuer grasps the patient's knees.
power grip
gripping with as much hand surface as possible in contact with object being lifted, all fingers bent at the same angle, hands at least 10 inches apart.
power lift
a lift from a squatting position with weight to be lifted close to the body, feet apart and flat on the ground, body weight on or just behind balls of feet, back locked in. The upper body is raised before the hips. Also called the squat-left position.
abdominal quadrants
four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of a pain or injury: the right upper quadrant (RUQ), the left upper quadrant (LUQ), the right lower quadrant (RUQ), and the left lower quadrant (LLQ).
acetabulum
the pelvic socket into which the ball at the proximal end of the femur fits to form the hip joint.
acromioclavicular joint
the joint where the acromion and the clavicle meet.
acromion process
the highest portion of the shoulder.
alveoli
the microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange with the bloodstream takes place.
anatomical position
the standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this position, the body is standing erect, facing the observer, with arms down at the sides and the palms of the hands forward.
anatomy
the study of body structure.
anterior
the front of the body or body part.
aorta
the largest artery in the body. It transports blood from the left ventricle to begin systemic circulation.
appendix
a small tube located near the junction of the small and large intestines in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, the function of which is not well understood. Its inflammation, called appendicitis, is a common cause of abdominal pain.
arteriole
the smallest kind of artery.
artery
any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
atria
the two upper chambers of the heart. There is a right atrium (which receives unoxygenated blood returning from the body) and a left atrium (which receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs).
automaticity
the ability of the heart to generate and conduct electrical impulses on its own.
autonomic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor functions.
bilateral
on both sides.
blood pressure
the force of blood against the walls of the blood vessels. Usually arterial blood pressure (the pressure in an artery) is measured. See also diastolic blood pressure; systolic blood pressure.
brachial artery
artery of the upper arm; the site of the pulse checked during infant CPR.
bronchi
the two large sets of branches that come off the trachea and enter the lungs. There are right and left bronchi. Singular bronchus.
calcaneus
the heel bone.
capillary
a thin-walled, microscopic blood vessel where oxygen/carbon dioxide and nutrient/waste exchange with the body's cells takes place.
cardiac conduction system
a system of specialized muscle tissues which conduct electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat.
cardiac muscle
specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart.
cardiovascular system
the system made up of the heart (cardio) and the blood vessels (vascular0; the circulatory system.
carotid arteries
the large neck arteries, one on each side of the neck, that carry blood from the heart to the head.
carpals
the wrist bones.
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord.
central pulses
the carotid and femoral pulses, which can be felt in the central part of the body.
circulatory system
See cardiovascular system.
clavicle
the collarbone.
coronary arteries
blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart (myocardium).
cranium
the bony structure making up the forehead, top, back, and upper sides of the skull.
cricoid cartilage
the ring-shaped structure that circles the trachea at the lower edge of the larynx.
dermis
the inner (second) layer of skin, rich in blood vessels and nerves, found beneath the epidermis.
diaphragm
the muscular structure that divides the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. A major muscle of respiration.
diastolic blood pressure
the pressure remaining in the arteries when the left ventricle of the heart is relaxed and refilling.
digestive system
system by which food travels through the body and is digested, or broken down into absorbable forms.
distal
farther away from the torso.
dorsal
referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot. A synonym for posterior.
dorsalis pedis artery
artery supplying the foot, lateral to the large tendon of the big toe.
endocrine system
system of glands that produce chemicals called hormones that help to regulate many body activities and functions.
epidermis
the outer layer of skin.
epiglottis
a leaf-shaped structure that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the trachea.
epinephrine
a hormone produced by the body. As a medication it dilates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reactions.
exhalation
a passive process in which the intercostal (rib) muscles and the diaphragm relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size and causing air to flow out of the lungs. Also called expiration.
femoral artery
the major artery supplying the thigh.
femur
the large bone of the thigh.
fibula
the lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg.
Fowler's position
a sitting position.
gallbladder
a sac on the underside of the liver that stores bile produced by the liver.
humerus
the bone of the upper arm, between the shoulder and the elbow.
hypoperfusion
inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients.
ilium
the superior and widest portion of the pelvis.
inferior
away from the head; usually compared with another structure that is closer to the head (e.g., the lips are inferior to the nose).
inhalation
an active process in which the intercostal (rib) muscles and the diaphragm contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity and causing air to flow into the lungs. Also called inspiration.
insulin
a hormone produced by the pancreas or taken as a medication by many diabetics.
involuntary muscle
muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled.
ischium
the lower, posterior portions of the pelvis.
joint
the point where two bones come together.
large intestine
the muscular tube that removes water from waste products received from the small in testine and removes anything not absorbed by the body toward excretion from the body.
larynx
the voicebox.
lateral
to the side, away from the midline of the body.
ligament
tissue that connects bone to bone.
liver
the largest internal organ of the body, produces bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assists in the metabolism of various substances in the body.
lungs
the organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place.
malleolus
protrusion on the side of the ankle. The lateral malleolus, at the lower end of the fibula, is seen on the outer ankle; the medial malleolus, at the lower end of the tibia, is seen on the inner ankle.
mandible
the lower jaw bone.
manubrium
the superior portion of the sternum.
maxillae
the two fused bones forming the upper jaw.
medial
toward the midline of the body.
metacarpals
the hand bones.
metatarsals
the foot bones.
mid-axillary line
a line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle.
mid-clavicular line
the line through the center of each clavicle.
midline
an imaginary line drawn down the center of the body, dividing it into right and left halves.
muscle
tissue that can contract to allow movement of a body part.
musculoskeletal system
the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement.
nasal bones
the bones that form the upper third, or bridge, of the nose.
nasopharynx
the area directly posterior to the nose.
nervous system
the system of brain, spinal cord, and nerves that govern sensation, movement, and thought.
orbits
the bony structures around the eyes; the eye sockets.
oropharynx (OR-o-FAIR-inks)
the area directly posterior to the mouth.
palmar
referring to the palm of the hand.
pancreas
a gland located behind the stomach that produces insulin and produces juices that assist in digestion of food in the duodenum of the small intestine.
patella
the kneecap.
pelvis
the basin-shaped bony structure that supports the spine and is the point of proximal attachment for the lower extremities.
perfusion
the supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the nerves that enter and leave the spinal cord and travel between the brain and organs without passing through the spinal cord.
peripheral pulses
the radial, brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral (outlying) points of the body.
phalanges
the toe bones and finger bones.
pharynx
the area directly posterior to the mouth and nose. It is made up of the oropharynx and the nasopharynx.
physiology
the study of body function.
plane
a flat surface formed when slicing through a solid object.
plantar
referring to the sole of the foot.
plasma
the fluid portion of the blood.
platelets
components of the blood; membrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells.
posterior
the back of the body or body part.
posterior tibial artery
artery supplying the foot, behind the medial ankle.
prone
lying face down.
proximal
closer to the torso.
pubis
the medial anterior portion of the pelvis.
pulmonary arteries
the vessels that carry blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
pulmonary veins
the vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
pulse
the rhythmic beats caused by the beating heart as waves of blood move through and expand the arteries.
radial artery
artery of the lower arm. It is felt when taking the pulse at the wrist.
radius
the lateral bone of the forearm.
recovery position
lying on the side. Also called lateral recumbent position.
red blood cells
components of the blood. They carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the cells.
respiratory system
the system of nose, mouth, throat, lungs, and muscles that brings oxygen into the body and expels carbon dioxide.
scapula
the shoulder blade.
shock
also known as hypoperfusion. The inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients. A life-threatening condition.
skeleton
the bones of the body.
skin
the layer of tissue between the body and the external environment.
skull
the bony structure of the head.
small intestine
the muscular tube between the stomach and the large intestine, divided into the duodenum, the jejunum, and ileum, which receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues digestion. Nutrients are absorbed by the body through its walls.
spleen
an organ located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen that acts as a blood filtration system and a reservoir for reserves of blood.
sternum
the breastbone.
stomach
muscular sac between the esophagus and the small intestine where digestion of food begins.
subcutaneous layers
the layers of fat and soft tissues found below the dermis.
superior
toward the head (e.g., the chest is superior to the abdomen).
supine
lying on the back.
systolic blood pressure
the pressure created in the arteries when the left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into circulation.
tarsals
the ankle bones.
tendon
tissue that connects muscle to the bone.
thorax
the chest.
tibia
the medial and larger bone of the lower leg.
torso
the trunk of the body; the body without the head and the extremities.
trachea
the "windpipe"; the structure that connects the pharynx to the lungs.
Trendelenburg position
a position in which the patient's feet and legs are higher than the head. Also called shock position.
ulna
the medial bone of the forearm.
valve
a structure that opens and closes to permit the flow of a fluid in only one direction.
vein
any blood vessel returning blood to the heart.
venae cavae
the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. These two major veins return blood from the body to the right atrium. (Venae cavae is plural, vena cava singular.)
ventral
referring to the front of the body. A synonym for anterior.
ventricles
the two lower chambers of the heart. There is a right ventricle (which sends oxygen-poor blood to the lungs) and a left ventricle (which sends oxygen-rich blood to the body).
venule
the smallest kind of vein.
vertebrae
the 33 bones of the spinal column (singular vertebra).
voluntary muscle
muscle that can be consciously controlled.
white blood cells
components of the blood. They produce substances that help the body fight infection.
xiphoid process
the inferior portion of the sternum.
zygomatic arches
form the structure of the cheeks.
abandonment
leaving a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transferred to someone with equal or greater medical training.
advance directive
a DNR order.
confidentiality
the obligation not to reveal information obtained about a patient except to other health-care professionals involved in the patient's care, or under subpoena, or in a court of law, or when the patient has signed a release of confidentiality.
consent
permission from the patient for care or other action by the EMT.
crime scene
the location where a crime has been committed or any place that evidence relating to a crime may be found.
do not resuscitate (DNR) order
a legal document, usually signed by the patient and his physician, which states that the patient has a terminal illness and does not wish to prolong life through resuscitative efforts.
duty to act
an obligation to provide care to a patient.
expressed consent
consent given by adults who are of legal age and mentally competent to make a rational decision in regard to their medical well-being.
Good Samaritan laws
a series of laws, varying in each state, designed to provide limited legal protection for citizens and some health-care personnel when they are administering emergency care.
HIPAA
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, a federal law protecting the privacy of patient-specific health care information and providing the patient with control over how this information is used and distributed.
implied consent
the consent it is presumed a patient or patient's parent or guardian would give if they could, such as for an unconscious patient or a parent who cannot be contacted when care is needed.
liability
being held legally responsible.
negligence
a finding of failure to act properly in a situation in which there was a duty to act, needed care as would reasonably be expected of the EMT was not provided, and harm was caused to the patient as a result.
organ donor
a person who has completed a legal document that allows for donation of organs and tissues in the event of death.
scope of practice
a set of regulations and ethical considerations that define the scope, or extent and limits, of the EMT's job.
contamination
The introduction of dangerous chemicals, disease, or infectious materials.
critical incident stress management (CISM)
a comprehensive system that includes education and resources to both prevent stress and to deal with stress appropriately when it occurs. .
Decontamination
The removal or cleansing of dangerous chemicals and other dangerous or infectious materials.
hazardous-material incident
the release of a harmful substance into the environment.
multiple-casualty incident (MCI)
an emergency involving multiple patients.
pathogens
the organisms that cause infection, such as viruses and bacteria.
personal protective equipment (PPE)
equipment that protects the EMS worker from infection and/or exposure to the dangers of rescue operations.
Standard Precautions
a strict form of infection control that is based on the assumption that all blood and other body fluids are infectious.
stress
a state of physical and/or psychological arousal to a stimulus.
designated agent
an EMT or other person authorized by a Medical Director to give medications and provide emergency care. The transfer of such authorization to a designated agent is an extension of the Medical Director's license to practice medicine.
medical direction
oversight of the patient-care aspects of an EMS system by the Medical Director.
Offline medical direction
consists of standing orders issued by the Medical Director that allow EMTs to give certain medications or perform certain procedures without speaking to the Medical Director or another physician.
On-line medical direction
consists of orders from the on-duty physician given directly to an EMT in the field by radio or telephone.
Medical Director
a physician who assumes the ultimate responsibility for the patient care aspects of the EMS system.
911 System
A system for telephone access to report emergencies. A dispatcher takes the information and alerts EMS or the fire or police departments as needed.
Enhanced 911
has the additional capability of automatically identifying the caller's phone number and location.
Protocols
Lists of steps, such as assessments and interventions, to be taken in different situations. Protocols are developed by the Medical Director of an EMS system.
Quality Improvement
A process of continuous self-review with the purpose of identifying and correcting aspects of the system that require improvement.
Standing Orders
A policy or protocol issued by a Medical Director that authorizes EMT-Bs and others to perform particular skills in certain situations.