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Chapter 5 Counseling and Helping Relationships
Terms in this set (85)
Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, which is both a form of treatment and a very comprehensive personality theory. According to Freud's theory, inborn drives (mainly sexual) help form the personality. __________ and ___________, who originally worked with Freud, created individual psychology and analytic psychology, respectively.
a. Carl Jung; Alfred Adler
b. Alfred Adler; Carl Jung
c. Josef Breuer; A. A. Brill
d. Alfred Adler; Rollo May
b. Alfred Adler; Carl Jung
Eric Berne's transactional analysis (TA) posits three ego states: the Child, the Adult, and the Parent. These roughly correspond to Freud's structural theory that includes
a. oral, anal, and phallic.
b. unconscious, preconscious, and conscious.
c. a and b.
d. id, ego, and superego.
d. id, ego, and superego. *
In transactional analysis (TA), the ________ is the conscious, or ego state concerned with moral behavior, while in Freudian theory it is the ______.
a. Adult, unconscious
b. Parent, ego
c. Parent, superego
d. Parent, id
c. Parent, superego *
Freud felt that successful resolution of the Oedipus complex led to the development of the superego. This is accomplished by
a. identification with the aggressor, the parent of the same sex.
b. analysis during the childhood years.
c. identification with the parent of the opposite sex, the aggressor.
a. identification with the aggressor, the parent of the same sex. *
Freudians refer to the ego as
a. the executive administrator of the personality and the reality principle
b. the guardian angel of the mind
c. the pleasure principle
d. the seat of libido
a. the executive administrator of the personality and the reality principle. *
Freud's theory speaks of Eros and Thanatos. A client who threatens a self-destructive act is being ruled primarily by
b. Eros and the id.
d. both Eros and Thantos.
The id is present at birth and never matures. It operates mainly out of awareness to satisfy instinctual needs according to the
a. reality principle.
b. notion of transference.
c. Eros principle
d. pleasure principle, suggesting humans desire instinct gratification for libido, sex, or the elimination of hunger or thirst.
d. pleasure principle, suggesting humans desire instinct gratification for libido, sex, or the elimination of hunger or thirst. *
If you think of the mind as a seesaw, then the fulcrum or balancing apparatus would be the
a. id, which has no concept of rationality or time.
c. superego, which judges behavior as right or wrong.
B. ego *
A therapist who says to a patient, "Say whatever comes to mind," is practicing
a. directive counseling.
b. transactional analysis.
d. free association.
d. free association. *
The superego contains the ego ideal. The superego strives for _________, rather than ________ like the id.
a. perfection; pleasure
b. pleasure; perfection
c. morals; ethics
d. logic; reality
a. perfection; pleasure *
All of these theorists could be associated with the analytic movement except
d. Wolpe *
Most scholars would assert that Freud's 1900 work entitled The Interpretation of Dreams was his most influential work. Dreams have
a. manifest and latent content.
b. preconscious and unconscious factors.
c. id and ego.
d. superego and id.
a. manifest and latent content. *
When a client projects feelings toward the therapist that he or she originally had toward a significant other, it is called
a. free association
Which case is not associated with the psychodynamic movement?
a. Little Hans
b. Little Albert
c. Anna O.
d. Daniel Paul Schreber
b. Little Albert *
In contrast with classical psychoanalysis, psychodynamic counseling or therapy
a. utilizes fewer sessions per week.
b. does not utilize the couch.
c. is performed face to face.
d. all of the above.
d. all of the above. *
Talking about difficulties in order to purge emotions and feelings is a curative process known as
a. catharsis and/or abreaction
c. accurate empathy
d. reflection of emotional content
a. catharsis and/or abreaction *
Id, ego, superego is to structural theory as __________ is to topographical theory.
a. Child, Adult, Parent.
b. abreaction, catharsis, introspection
c. ego ideal
d. unconscious, preconscious, conscious
d. unconscious, preconscious, conscious. *
The most controversial aspect of Freud's theory is
b. the Oedipus complex.
c. the notion of the preconscious mind.
d. the interpretation of dreams.
b. the Oedipus complex. *
Evidence for the unconscious mind comes from all of the except
b. Slips of the tongue and humor.
d. Subjective units of distress scale.
d. Subjective units of distress scale.*
In a counseling session, a counselor asked a patient to recall what transpired three months ago to trigger her depression. There was a silence for about two and one-half minutes. The client then began to remember. This exchange most likely illustrates the function of the
a. preconscious mind.
b. ego ideal.
c. conscious mind.
d. unconscious mind.
a. preconscious mind. *
Unconscious processes, which serve to minimize anxiety and protect the self from severe id or superego demands are called
a. slips of the tongue.
b. ego defense mechanisms.
c. id defense processes.
d. latent dream material.
b. ego defense mechanisms. *
Most therapists agree that ego defense mechanisms are unconscious and deny or distort reality. Rationalization, compensation, repression, projection, reaction formation, identification, introjection, denial, and displacement are ego defense mechanisms. According to Freudians, the most important defense mechanism is
b. reaction formation.
a. repression. *
Suppression differs from repression in that
a) suppression is stronger
b) repression only occurs in children
c) repression is automatic or involuntary
d) all of the above
c. repression is automatic or involuntary. *
An aggressive person who becomes a professional boxer because he or she is sadistic is displaying
c. sublimation. *
An advertising agency secretly imbeds the word SEX into the newspaper ads intended to advertise the center's chemical dependency program. This is the practice
d. none of the above.
d. none of the above. *
A man receives a nickel an hour pay raise. He was expecting a one dollar per hour raise. He is furious but nonassertive. He thus smiles and thanks his boss. That night he yells at his wife for no apparent reason. This is an example of
d. a Type II error
a. displacement *
A student tells a college counselor that he is not upset by a grade of "F" in physical education that marred his fourth-year perfect 4.0 average inasmuch as "straight A students are eggheads." This demonstrates
b. reaction formation
c. sour grapes rationalization
d. sweet lemon rationalization
c. sour grapes rationalization *
A master's level counselor lands an entry-level counseling job in an agency in a warm climate. Her office is not air-conditioned, but the counselor insists she like this because sweating really helps to keep her weight in check. This illuminates
a. sour grapes rationalization
b. sweet lemon rationalization
b. sweet lemon rationalization *
A teenager who had his heart set on winning a tennis match broke his arm in an auto accident. He sends in an entry form to play in the competition which begins just days after the accident. His behavior is influenced by
b. displacement of anger
d. organ inferiority
a. denial *
_________ is like looking in a mirror but thinking you are looking out a window.
b. Sour grapes rationalization
c. Projection *
Mark is obsessed with stamping out pornography. He is unconsciously involved in this cause so that he can view the material. This is
a. reaction formation
a. reaction formation *
Ted has always felt inferior intellectually. He currently works out at the gym at least four hours daily and is taking massive doses of dangerous steroids to build his muscles. The ego defense mechanism in action here is
a. reaction formation
b. compensation *
Jane feels very inferior. She is now president of the board at a shelter for the homeless. She seems to be obsessed with her work for the agency and spends every spare minute trying to help the cause. When asked to introduce herself in virtually any social situation, Jane invariably responds with, "I'm the president of the board for the homeless shelter." Jane is engaging in
d. identification *
A client who has incorporated his father's values into his thought patterns is a product of
a. introjection *
The client's tendency to inhibit or fight against the therapeutic process is known as
a. resistance *
Freud has been called the most significant theorist in the entire history of psychology. His greatest contribution was his conceptualization of the unconscious mind. Critics, however, contend that
a. he was too concerned with the totem and the taboo.
b. he failed to emphasize sex.
c. many aspects of his theory are difficult to test from a scientific standpoint.
d. he was pro female.
c. many aspects of his theory are difficult to test from a scientific standpoint. *
The purpose of interpretation in counseling is to
a. help the therapist appear genuine.
b. make the clients aware of their unconscious processes.
c. make clients aware of nonverbal behaviors.
d. help clients understand feelings and behaviors related to childhood.
b. make the clients aware of their unconscious processes. *
Organ inferiority relates mainly to the work of
a. C.G. Jung's analytical psychology.
b. Alfred Adler's individual psychology.
c. Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory.
d. Josef Breuer's work on hysteria.
b. Alfred Adler's individual psychology. *
When a client becomes aware of a factor in his or her life that was heretofore unknown, counselors refer to it as
a. individual psychology
c. transference neurosis
d. insight *
C. G. Jung, the founder of analytic psychology, said men operate on logic or the _______ principle, while women are intuitive, operating on the _______ principle.
a. Eros; Thanatos
b. Logos, Eros
c. reality, pleasure
d. transference, countertransference
b. Logos, Eros *
Jung used drawings balanced around a center point to analyze himself, his clients, and dreams. What are these called?
b. projective drawings
c. unconscious automatic writing
d. eidetic imagery
a. mandalas *
_________ emphasized the drive for superiority.
c. Constructivist therapists
d. Freud and Jung
b. Adler *
The statement "Sibling interaction may have more impact than parent-child interaction" describes
a. Sigmund Freud's theory
b. Alfred Adler's theory
d. Carl Jung's theory
b. Alfred Adler's theory *
In contrast with Freud, the neo-Freudians emphasized
a. baseline measures
b. social factors
c. unconditional positive regard
b. social factors *
The terms introversion and extroversion are associated with
d. Jung *
The personality types of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) are associated with the work of
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Alfred Adler
d. Carl G. Jung
d. Carl D. Jung *
One of Adler's students, Rudolph Dreikurs,
a. created the TAT
b. was the first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice
c. was a noted Freud hater
d. created the hierarchy of needs
b. was the first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice. *
Adler emphasized that people wish to belong. This is known as
b. social connectedness
c. the collective unconscious
b. social connectedness *
Adler was one of the first therapists who relied on paradox. Using this strategy, a client (who was a student in a counselor preparation program) who was afraid to give a presentation in front of his counseling class for fear he might shake and embarrass himself would be instructed to
a. exaggerate the behavior and really do a thorough job shaking in front of the class
b. practice relaxation techniques for 10-20 minutes before the speech
c. practice rational self-talk
d. practice rational thinking
a. exaggerate the behavior and really do a thorough job shaking in front of the class. *
C. J. Jung felt that society caused men to deny their feminine side known as ________ and women to deny their masculine side known as ________.
a. Eros, Thanatos
b. animus, anima
c. anima, animus
d. yin, yang
c. anima, animus *
Jung spoke of a collective unconscious common to all men and women. The material that makes up the collective unconscious, which is passed from generation to generation, is known as
a. a hierarchy of needs
d. archetypes *
Common archetypes include
a) the persona - the mask or role we present to others to hide our true self
b) animus, anima, and self
c) shadow - the mask behind the persona, which contains id-like material, denied, yet desired
d) all of the above
d. all of the above *
A client is demonstrating inconsistent behavior. She is smiling but says that she is very sad about what she did. When her counselor points this out to her, the counselor's verbal response is known as
a. active listening
c. accurate empathy
b. confrontation *
During a professional staff meeting, a counselor says he is worried that if techniques are implemented to stop a 6-year-old boy from sucking his thumb, then he will begin biting his nails or stuttering. The counselor
a. is using ACT or acceptance and commitment therapy, a mindfulness-based behavior therapy.
b. is using Donald Meichenbaum's cognitive behavior modification.
c. is most likely a behaviorist concerned with symptom substitution.
d. is most likely an analytically trained counselor concerned with symptom substitution.
d. is most likely an analytically trained counselor concerned with symptom substitution. *
An eclectic counselor
a. is analytic
b. is behavioristic
c. attempts to choose the best theoretical approach based on the client's attributes, resources, and situation
d. insists on including all family members in the treatment
c. attempts to choose the best theoretical approach based on the client's attributes, resources, and situation. *
The work eclectic is most closely associated with
a. Frederick C. Thorne
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Jean Piaget
d. Burrhus Frederic Skinner
a. Frederick C. Thorne *
A counselor who is obsessed with the fact that a client missed his or her session is the victim of
a. cognitive dissonance
d. positive transference
c. countertransference *
Lifestyle, birth order, and family constellation are emphasized by _____.
d. Thorne and Lazarus.
c. Adler *
A counselor who remarks that firstborn children are usually conservative but display leadership qualities are most likely
a. a Freudian who believes in the unconscious mind.
b. an Adlerian who believes behavior must be studied in a social context; never in isolation.
c. a Rogerian who stresses the importance of the therapeutic relationship.
d. a behavior modifier using a behavioral context.
b. an Adlerian who believes behavior must be studied in a social context; never in isolation. *
Existentialism is to logotherapy as ________ is to behaviorism.
b. associationism *
B. F. Skinner's reinforcement theory elaborated on
a. Edward Thorndike's law of effect.
b. Alfred Adler's concept of lifestyle.
c. Arnold Lazarus's concept of the BASIC-ID used in the multimodal therapeutic approach that is eclectic and holistic.
d. symptom substitution.
a. Edward Thorndike's law of effect. *
Classical conditioning relates to the work of
a. E. G. Williamson
b. B. F. Skinner
c. Viktor Frankl, who created logotherapy
d. Ivan Pavlov
d. Ivan Pavlov *
An association that naturally exists, such as an animal salivating (an unconditioned response known as a UR or UCR) when food is presented, is called
a. an operant
b. a conditioned stimulus (CS).
c. an unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
d. an acquisition period
c. an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). *
Skinner's operant conditioning is also referred to as
a. instrumental learning
b. classical conditioning
c. cognitive learning
d. learning via insight
a. instrumental learning *
Respondent behavior refers to
c. a type of phobia
a. reflexes *
a. are plastic tokens
b. tend to increase the probability that a behavior will occur
c. are secondary
d. do not raise behavior since negative reinforcement lowers behavior
b. tend to increase the probability that a behavior will occur *
Negative reinforcement requires the withdrawal of an aversive (negative) stimulus to increase the likelihood that a behavior will occur. negative reinforcement is not used as often as positive reinforcement and
a. is really the same as punishment
b. effectively lowers the frequency of behavior in young children
c. is not the same thing as punishment
d. is a psychodynamic conceptualization
c. is not the same thing as punishment *
a. is the same as negative reinforcement
b. is much more effective than reinforcement
c. decreases the probability that a behavior will occur
d. is used extensively in reality therapy
c. decreases the probability that a behavior will occur. *
In Pavlov's famous experiment using dogs, the bell was the _________ and the meat was the __________.
a. CS; UCS
b. UCS; CS
c. CR; UCS
d. UCS; CR
a. CS; UCS *
The most effective time interval (temporal relation) between the CS and US
a. is irrelevant ---it does not influence the learning process.
b. is 5 seconds.
c. is the .05 level according to the social scientists.
d. is .5 or half a second.
d. is .5 or half a second. *
Many researchers have tried putting the UCS (the meat) before the CS (the bell). This usually results in
a. increased learning.
b. anger on the part of the dog.
c. experimental neurosis.
d. no conditioning.
d. no conditioning. *
Several graduate students in counseling trained a poodle to salivate using Pavlov's classical conditioning paradigm. One day the department chairman was driving across campus and honked his horn. Much to the chagrin of the students, the poodle elicited a salivation response. What had happened?
a. experimental neurosis had obviously set in.
c. stimulus generalization or what Pavlov termed irradiation.
d. stimulus discrimination.
c. stimulus generalization or what Pavlov termed irradiation. *
The department chairman found the poodle's response (see question 272) to his automobile horn humorous. He thus instructed the graduate students to train the dog to salivate only to his car horn and not the original toy bell. Indeed the graduate students were able to perform this task. The poodle was now demonstrating
a. experimental neurosis
d. stimulus discrimination.
d. stimulus discrimination *
The department chair was further amused by the poodle's tendency to be able to discriminate one CS from another (see question 273). He thus told the students to teach the dog to salivate only to the horn on his Ford but not one on a graduate student's Chevrolet truck. In reality, the horns on the two vehicles sounded nearly identical. The training was seemingly unsuccessful inasmuch as the dog merely took to very loud barking. In this case
a. experimental neurosis set in.
b. irradiation became a reality.
c. borderline personality traits no doubt played a role.
d. a covert process confounded the experiment.
a. experimental neurosis set in. *
In one experiment, a dog was conditioned to salivate to a bell paired with a fast-food cheeseburger. The researcher then kept ringing the bell without giving the dog the cheeseburger. This is known as
a. instrumental learning via shaping.
b. positive reinforcement
c. extinction, and the salivation will disappear.
d. negative reinforcement.
c. extinction, and the salivation will disappear. *
John B. Watson's name is associated with
a. Little Hans
b. Anno O.
c. Little Albert
d. b and c
c. Little Albert *
During a family counseling session, a 6-year-old girl repeatedly sticks her tongue out at the counselor, who is obviously ignoring the behavior. The counselor is practicing
a. negative reinforcement
c. reciprocal inhibition
d. extinction *
In general, behavior modification strategies are based heavily on ____________________, while behavior therapy emphasizes ___________________.
a. instrumental conditioning; classical conditioning
b. Pavlovian principles; Skinnerian principles
c. Skinnerian principles; Pavlovian principles
d. a and c
d. a and c *
A behavioristic counselor decides upon aversive conditioning as the treatment of choice for a gentleman who wishes to give up smoking. The counselor begins by taking a baseline. This is accomplished
a. using hypnosis.
b. by charting the occurrence of the behavior prior to any therapeutic intervention.
c. using a biofeedback device.
d. by counterconditioning.
b. by charting the occurrence of the behavior prior to any therapeutic intervention. *
The first studies, which demonstrated that animals could indeed be conditioned to control autonomic processes, were conducted by
a. Edward Thorndike.
b. Joseph Wolpe.
c. Neal Miller.
d. Ivan Pavlov.
c. Neal Miller. *
The significance of the Little Albert experiment by Joh B. Watson and Rosalie Raynor was that
a. a phobia could be a learned behavior.
b. it provided concrete proof that Skinner's model was correct.
c. it provided concrete proof that Pavlov's model was correct.
d. none of the above.
a. a phobia could be a learned behavior. *
John B Watson is to cause as Mary Cover Jones is to
a. cure *
In the famous Little Albert experiment, a child was conditioned to fear a harmless white furry animal. Historical accounts indicate that the child also began to fear a Santa Claus mask. This would demonstrate
a. two DSM diagnosis which often co-occur: panic disorder and agoraphobia.
b. stimulus generalization.
c. an adjustment reaction.
d. stimulus discrimination.
b. stimulus generalization. *
A counselor who says he or she practices depth psychology technically bases his or her treatment on
a. Pavlov's dogs.
b. Mary Cover Jones.
c. John B. Watson.
d. Freud's topographic hypothesis.
d. Freud's topographic hypothesis. *
When a counselor refers to a counseling paradigm, she really means
a. she is nondirective.
b. she is very directive.
c. a treatment model.
d. she is not a depth psychologist.
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