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PSY 200 Test 1
Terms in this set (89)
What two subjects does psychology come from?
Physiology and philosophy
When was the first psych lab established and by who?
1879, William Wundt in Germany
Wundt said that psychology was the study of
When was the first psych lab established in the US and by who?
G Stanley Hall 1883
What is William James famous for?
Writing the first major textbook in psychology
Willam James- psychology is not so much what the mind is but the purpose/function of it
Wundt. the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind
systematic observation of one's own conscious experience. used in structuralism
our traits and personalities are innate (genetic and biological makeup)
our traits and personalities are learned (environment)
John Watson (USA) believed that psychology is scientific study of behavior. Says you can't observe consciousness. Skinner emphasized psychology should be about what people do (actions) not their feelings
Sigmund Freud- Europe. unlocking a person's unconscious conflicts by talking with the individual about their childhood.
Rogers, Maslow 1940s. Psychologists should emphasize unique qualities of humans: freedom and growth
1960s. characterize how info is processed and stored.
1980s. behavior explained in terms of physiological processes.
Current definition of psychology
the scientific study of mental process and human behavior
study and treatment of mental disorders
study of other areas of human interest
requirement for psychology
you need to be a critical thinker
Scientific method for psychology
1. observing some phenomenon
2. formulating hypothesis
3. conduct research
4. drawing conclusions
5. evaluating conclusions
a broad idea to explain a phenomenon
anything that can change
manipulate one variable in order to observe changes in another variable
variable that is manipulated. the experimenter changes to see what its effects are. CAUSE
the variable affected by manipulation. the outcome- the factor that can change in an experiment in repoinse to the changes in the independent variable. EFFECT
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Participants have equal chance of being in either group.
Strength of experimental research
conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn
weaknesses of experimental research
artificial nature of experiments
ethical and practical issues
The researcher observes or measures two or more naturally occurring variables to find the relationship between them. In correlation research, the researcher does not directly manipulate the variables.
values for the two variables are moving in the same direction (both increase or decrease)
values for two variables moving in opposite directions (one variable increases, other decreases)
what we can do that can be directly observed
thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experience privately
Most common place to find psychologists is at
- believed that most of human behavior is caused by dark, unpleasant, unconscious impulses pressing for expression. Freud based his ideas about human nature on patients he saw in clinical practice- those with psychological problems. He stated that most human beings are trash.
What fits well with Charles Darwin theory of natural selection?
Psychologists examine behavior through ___ approach
biological. focuses on body and nervous system
- scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system. Emphasizes that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotions,
(sigmund freud) unlocking a person's unconscious conflicts by talking with the indivudla about their childhood.
emphasizes a person's positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose one's destiny.
your brain houses a "mind" whose mental processes allow you to remember, make decisions, plan, set goals, and be creative. This approach emphasizes the mental process involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems.
Uses evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection for explaining specific human behavior.
examines the influences of social and cultural environments on behavior. Socioculturalists argue that understanding a person's behavior requires knowing about the cultural context in which the behavior occurs.
characteristics scientific theory
must be falsifiable. . Even a scientistist who believes that a theory is true must be able to generate ideas about research that would prove the theory wrong and test those ideas.
Theory of well-being is self determination theory
- states that people are likely to feel fulfilled when their lives meet three important needs: relatedness, autonomy, and competence
finding out ab the basic dimensions of come variable (surveys, observations, interviews, case studies)
discovering relationships between variables.. seeing how they relate
concerns establishing causal relationships between variables
soundness of conclusions that research draws from experiments.
degree to which an experimental design really reflects the real world issues it is supposed to address
refers to degree to which changes in the dependent variable are due to the manipulation of the independent variable
Occurs when participants' expectations, rather than the experimental treatment, produce an outcome.
Double blind experiment
neither experimenter administering nor participants are aware of which participants in experimental group and which in control
observing behavior in a real world setting
children, individuals with psychological disorders, in carcerated adults
Central Nervous System (CNS):
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System:
nerve that lies outside of CNS
somatic nervous system
part of peripheral nervous system- voluntary muscle movement and sensory receptors
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). sympathetic- fight or flight response
parasympathethic- conserves energy
brain cells that transfer information (sensory and motor neurons)
structural support and insulation for neurons
Brain's ability to adapt and change (store information and memories)
reconnect neurons around damaged areas
As you age, brain's plasticity
cell body of a neuron
transmit information away from soma
insulation around the axon
The neural impulse
electrically charged ions in the fluid inside and outside of neuron (70 millivolts there are more negative ions inside)
chemicals that pass messages from one neuron to another
a chemical that mimics the action of a transmitter
a chemical that blocks the function of a neurotransmitter
voluntary movement; pleasurable emotions
mood and arousal
sleep/wake cycle; eating; aggression
love and bonding
Medulla- regulate breathing, circulation, and maintain muscle tone
Cerebellum- movement and balance
reticular activating system: pain perception
emotion and complex thought
Hypothalamus: regulate basic needs (feeding, fighting, fleeing, sexual behavior)
Limbic system: structures involved in emotion and motivation
Left Hemisphere of brain
Broca's area- language production
Wernicke's area: language comprehension
Right hemisphere of brain
non-verbal processing (spatial and music processing, math)
bundle of axons that connect the hemisphere
somatosensory (senses of body)
voluntary movement and executive control
Pre-frontal cortex- higher cognitive functions (thinking, problem solving, decision making)
Recommended textbook explanations
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Modern Biology: Student Edition
Janet L. Hopson, Postlethwait
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