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32 terms

AP Lab Nervous System

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The cellular unit of the nervous system is the neuron. What is the major function of this cell type.
Transmitting messages from one place to another.
The supporting cells, or neuroglia, have numerous functions
Myelination,macrophages, protection, anchoring neuron in place.
The brain & spinal cord collectively
CNS
Junction or point of close contact between neurons.
Synapse
A bundle of nerve processes outside the CNS.
Association neuron or interneuron
Spinal & cranial nerves & ganglia.
PNS
Collection of nerve cell bodies inside the CNS.
Nuclei
Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS or PNS.
Ganglia
Neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands
Efferent (Motor)
Neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery
Afferent (Sensory)
Chemicals released by axonal terminals
Neurotransmitters
How is one-way conduction at synapes ensured?
Axons only carry impulses in one direction
Describe how the Schwann cells form the myelin sheath and the neurilemma encasing the nerve processes.
Wraps around axon without crushing it. (Jellyroll style)
Reversal of the resting potential owing to an influx of sodium ions.
Depolarization
Period during which potassium ions are diffusing out of the neuron.
Repolarization
Transmission of the depolarization wave along the neuronal membrane
Action potential
Mechanism that restores the resting membrane voltage and intracellular ionic concentrations
Sodium potassium pump
Would a substance that decreases membrane permeability to sodium increase or decrease the probability of generating a nerve impulse?
Decrease
Why don't the terms depolarization & action potential mean the same thing?
Depolarization is at sub threshold amount, small change in charge. Action potential is at full threshold, large change in charge.
Which of the following structures are NOT a part of the brain stem?

Cerebral Hemispheres
Pons
Midbrain
Cerebellum
Medulla
Cerebral Hemispheres, Cerebellum
Elevated ridge of cerebral tissue
Gyrus
Inward folds of cerebral tissue
Sulci, fissures
Most important autonomic center of the brain
Medulla Oblongata
Coordinates complex muscular movements
Cerebellum
Contains autonomic centers regulating heart rate,respiration, and other visceral activities
Medulla
Large fiber tractconnecting the cerebral hemisphers
Corpus Collosum
Part of the endocrine system
Pituitary Gland, Pinal Body
The intermediate mass is part of it
Thalmus
Why would trama to the base of the brain be dangerous.
Injury to the Medulla will cause problem with heart rate and breathing.
The outermost (and toughest) of the 3 meninges.
Dura Mater
Innermost vascular layer covering the brain; follows every convolution of the 3 meninges.
Pia
The middle element of the meninges named because of its spider web-like appearance. ...
Arachnoid