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Explain why the study is from the biological approach
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Terms in this set (23)
For example: • because the biological approach studies the role of neurons/the brain (1) and how they control/affect emotion/behaviour/cognition (1), and CAT/ MRI scans tell us about brain structures. (1) For example, their size in different people/how they change with age/when they are damaged (1) • brain scans can tell us about what different areas might do (1) and PET/ fMRI scans tell us about brain activity. (1) For example, how it is linked to perceptions or actions (1), the focus of the
• brain scans can tell us about what different areas might do (1) and PET/ fMRI scans tell us about brain activity. (1) For example, how it is linked to perceptions or actions (1), the focus of the scan on amygdala in Canli et al. was used with participants who were awake/actively engaged in a task/rated emotionality to visual scenes which showed scan activity was related to a cognitive variable/memory (1)
Outline one methodological problem that could arise if children were used as participants in this study. [2]MRI/MRI scans were used in the study to measure brain structure/activity. This requires participants to be still which might be difficult for children. (2 marks); Children may lack understanding of emotions (1 mark); Children would need to keep still during the brain scans (1 mark); Children may be scared to enter the machine so refuse to go in (1 mark); The children may find images distressing/scared of pictures (1 mark).From the study by Canli et al. (brain scans and emotion): Outline one aim of this study. [2]To investigate whether the amygdala is sensitive to different levels of experienced emotional intensities (2 marks) To investigate whether the degree of emotional intensity affects the role of the amygdala in enhancing memory (2 marks) To investigate the role of the amygdala in memories (1 mark)From the study by Canli et al. (brain scans and emotion): Suggest one real-world application of this study. [2]Psychologists may want to use the same procedure with people who have memory difficulties (1 mark). If a patient does not remember emotionally intense imagery then they may have a problem with/may have a damaged amygdala (1 mark)Outline how the participants rated their emotional arousal towards the 2 scenes. [2]after viewing a picture), a fixation cross appeared on the screen; They pressed a button to give the picture a rating; This ranged from 0-3; 0 = not emotionally intense/3 = extremely emotionally intense;Outline one conclusion from this study. [2]The amygdala affects memory (1 mark); Amygdala activation could/can predict memory (1 mark); The activity in the (left) amygdala during encoding could predict subsequent memories (2 marks);Explain one reason why the procedure was standardised in this study. [3]It would allow the study to be more easily replicated (1 mark) Therefore, it could be tested for reliability (1 mark) For example knowing how long the picture was presented for means exact replication is possible (1 mark)xplain one reason why the procedure was standardised in this study. [3t would increase the (internal) validity of the study (1 mark) Therefore, cause and effect are (more) likely to be seen (1 mark) For example knowing it was the emotion of the picture causing brain activity (1 mark) t can help to reduce extraneous/uncontrolled variables (1 mark) So that we know it is probably the IV of emotion (1 mark) causing the change in brain activity - the DV (1 mark)Describe the procedure during the brain scanning phase of the study 5 by Canli et al. (brain scans and emotions). [5] Send a message to everyone sendSend message 12:33PMThey entered an fMRI scanner; Ps viewed 96 scenes via a screen; Viewed them through a mirror directed at the screen; Movement was minimised by using a bite-bar; These were already rated for valence/arousal; The order of the scenes was randomised; Each picture/scene was shown for around 3s; There was a gap of c.13s in between pictures/scenes being shown; A fixation cross appeared on the screen; They were told to look at each picture/screen for the time it was on the screen; When fixation cross ap A fixation cross appeared on the screen; They were told to look at each picture/screen for the time it was on the screen; When fixation cross appeared they had to rate their emotional arousal; This was done by pressing a button/using a clicker The ratings were from 0 (not intense) to 3 (extremely intense).From the study by Canli et al. (brain scans and emotions): Describe one result about the ratings of emotional intensity of the scenes and one result about the percentage of participants who 'remembered' the scene across intensity ratings. You must use data for one of these results. [5]e.g. emotional intensity They were similar across the scenes (1 mark); there were slightly more scenes rated as 0 (not emotionally intense) (1 mark); 29% of scenes were rated as not emotionally intense (1 mark: data) There was a negative correlation between emotional intensity and valence (2 marks; 1 if just 'correlation'). The r value was -0.66 (1 mark: data) There was a positive correlation between emotional intensity and arousal (2 marks; 1 if just 'correlation). The r value was +0.68 (1 mark: data) There was a positive correlation between emotional intensity and (left) amygdala activation (2 marks; 1 if just 'correlation' OR amygdala activation was higher for scenes rated higher (2 or 3) compared to those rated lower (0 or 1) (2 marks) The scenes which had higher emotional/intensity ratings were remembered more (1 mark) than those with a low emotional/intensity rating (2 marks total: comparison)Describe the psychology that is being investigated in the study by Canli et al. (brain scans and emotion). [5]1 mark per 'psychology' point made 1 identification mark is available 1 mark available for an explicit example from the study Creditworthy 'psychology' includes emotions, amygdala, brain scans, memories.e.g.: The amygdala was investigated about its links with memories; It is part of the brain in the temporal lobe / part of the limbic system; The amygdala has different functions in different hemispheres of the brain. An fMRI is a non-invasive technique / measures brain activity; Radio waves are coupled with a strong magnetic field to create the scan output; This allows a researcher to look at blood flow in the brain during mental activities / processing of information.Describe the procedure of this study from the point when the participants returned three weeks after the fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery) scans had taken place. [5]The participants were given an unexpected recognition test; They viewed all previous (96) seen scenes; They viewed 48/new/never seen before foils; The foils were chosen to match the previous scenes on valence/arousal; During the recognition test, participants were asked if they had seen the picture before; If they said yes they had to state 'remember' if they were certain they had seen it; They had to respond with a 'know' if they were less confident that they had seen it; No rating was asked fo No rating was asked for if they stated that they had not seen it before. Send a message to everyone sendSend message 12:41PMEvaluate the study by Canli et al. (brains scans and emotions) in terms of two strengths and two weaknesses. At least one of your evaluation points must be about laboratory-based research. [10]Strengths include: validity, reliability, quantitative measures Weaknesses include: ethics, sample, generalisability