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Newtonian world-machine that God created the world but now lets it run freely

David Hume

Scottish philosopher who believed human knowledge is restricted by the senses; wrote "Treatise on Human Nature" where he examines humans and tries to figure out the "science of man"

science of man

how humans function


"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"; proposed heliocentric star system-->church forces him to correct himself

Galileo Galilei

"The Starry Messenger", "Dialogue on Ptolemaic and Copernican"; 1st to use telescope; principle of inertia

Tycho Brahe & Johannes Kepler

proved planets traveled in eliptical orbits

Sir Isaac Newton

"Principia"; calculus; universal law of gravity; 3 laws of motion


macrocosm-microcosm analogy; "like cures like"; one of first to use treatment of disease with drugs

Rene Descartes

"Discourse on Method" believed in deductive reasoning (general to specific); father of modern rationalism; seperation of mind & matter; "I think, therefore I am"

William Harvey

"On the Motion of the Heart and Blood"; discovered full body circulation of the blood & that blood comes from the heart

Blaise Pascal

"Pensees" believed in unification of science & religion

Bernard de Fontenelle

"Plurarality of Worlds"; communicated knowledge from scientifc revo. to upper-class audience

Francis Bacon

develops a scientific method using inductive reasoning (specific to general)

John Locke

"Essay Concerning Human Understanding" believed everyone is born with a "tabula Rasa"(blank slate); knowledge comes from your environment, its not hereditary of by faith; opposes Hobbes; protectiong of people's right; life,liberty,property; social contract


Wrote "Philosophic Letters on the English" & "Treatise on Toleration"; admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration; criticizes France for its absolutism

Denis Diderot

wrote "Encyclopedia"; symbol of Enlightenment

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism & condemed mercantilism; "laissez-faire"; believed wealth came through LABOR

Paul d'Holbach

preached atheism; God-fictionary

Marie-Jean de Condorcet

French who believed humans are close to perfection; utopianism

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

French philosopher who wrote "Social Contract" - consent of the governed and general will of the people & wrote "Discourse on Origins of Inequality of Manking"- primitive humans were happy; humans driven by their EMOTIONS

Francois Quesnay

Agriculture and property = wealth; supported mercantilism; physiocrat


enlightened thinkers who searched for natural laws to explain economics; opposed mercantilism

Thomas Hobbes

wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally greedy; believed an absolute ruler is needed

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