Unit 3: Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment

Newtonian world-machine that God created the world but now lets it run freely
David Hume
Scottish philosopher who believed human knowledge is restricted by the senses; wrote "Treatise on Human Nature" where he examines humans and tries to figure out the "science of man"
science of man
how humans function
"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"; proposed heliocentric star system-->church forces him to correct himself
Galileo Galilei
"The Starry Messenger", "Dialogue on Ptolemaic and Copernican"; 1st to use telescope; principle of inertia
Tycho Brahe & Johannes Kepler
proved planets traveled in eliptical orbits
Sir Isaac Newton
"Principia"; calculus; universal law of gravity; 3 laws of motion
macrocosm-microcosm analogy; "like cures like"; one of first to use treatment of disease with drugs
Rene Descartes
"Discourse on Method" believed in deductive reasoning (general to specific); father of modern rationalism; seperation of mind & matter; "I think, therefore I am"
William Harvey
"On the Motion of the Heart and Blood"; discovered full body circulation of the blood & that blood comes from the heart
Blaise Pascal
"Pensees" believed in unification of science & religion
Bernard de Fontenelle
"Plurarality of Worlds"; communicated knowledge from scientifc revo. to upper-class audience
Francis Bacon
develops a scientific method using inductive reasoning (specific to general)
John Locke
"Essay Concerning Human Understanding" believed everyone is born with a "tabula Rasa"(blank slate); knowledge comes from your environment, its not hereditary of by faith; opposes Hobbes; protectiong of people's right; life,liberty,property; social contract
Wrote "Philosophic Letters on the English" & "Treatise on Toleration"; admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration; criticizes France for its absolutism
Denis Diderot
wrote "Encyclopedia"; symbol of Enlightenment
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism & condemed mercantilism; "laissez-faire"; believed wealth came through LABOR
Paul d'Holbach
preached atheism; God-fictionary
Marie-Jean de Condorcet
French who believed humans are close to perfection; utopianism
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher who wrote "Social Contract" - consent of the governed and general will of the people & wrote "Discourse on Origins of Inequality of Manking"- primitive humans were happy; humans driven by their EMOTIONS
Francois Quesnay
Agriculture and property = wealth; supported mercantilism; physiocrat
enlightened thinkers who searched for natural laws to explain economics; opposed mercantilism
Thomas Hobbes
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally greedy; believed an absolute ruler is needed