Anatomy CH 11-15

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Which of the following statements about an axon is false?
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Terms in this set (161)
Which of the following most immediately encases the smallest component of a nerve?endoneuriumWhich of the following is the correct arrangement of a reflex arc?receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, effectorMitochondria are particularly abundant here.axon terminalWhich of the following is not a characteristic of neurons?ability to survive without oxygenRegeneration of peripheral axons requiresformation of a tube by Schwann cells to guide growth.Any long axon is called a nerve fiber.trueAll of the neuron's organelles are localized to the cell body.falseThese glial cells surround the cell bodies of sensory neurons within ganglia of the PNS.satellite cellsThe type of axon that conducts impulses most slowly isthin, unmyelinated.A man walking barefoot stepped on a piece of glass. His foot jerked upward in which type of reflex?somatic, polysynaptic withdrawal reflexSome small neurons in the CNS have no axon, only dendrites, and aremultipolarIn this part of a neuron, neurofilaments, actin microfilaments, and microtubules are particularly abundant, providing structural support and a transport network.axonAn example of proprioception isthe sensation you feel during a wake-up stretch.This tends to be the longest cytoplasmic projection froma neuron.axonGeneral visceral sensory impulses include pain, temperature, nausea, and hunger.trueVesicles containing neurotransmitters are located inaxon terminalsThe chemical substance that is released at axon terminals is called aneurotransmitterOligodendrocytes and Schwann cells myelinate neurons within the peripheral nervous system.falseWhich of the following statements concerning sensory neurons is incorrect?the contain only dendritesA somatic motor neuron carriesmotor commands to the skeletal musculatureNeurofibrilsprevent the neuron from being pulled apart when subjected to tensile forces.In an axodendritic synapse, the region of the postsynaptic neuron that binds the released neurotransmitter is the ________.dendriteAt what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate (inferiorly) in the average adult?between L1 and L2The cauda equinais a series of nerve roots in the lumbar and sacral region.ventral horns aremotorCerebrospinal fluid:all of the aboveWhich of these regions is the largest part of the diencephalon and forms the upper and lateral walls of the third ventricle?thalamusNeurons located in the anterior (ventral) region of the spinal cord's gray matter belong to this group.motorWhich of these regions of the brain, besides the cerebrum, has an outer cortical layer of gray matter?cerebellumThe hypothalamus, in addition to the cerebral cortex, is in control of emotional responses.trueThe brain stem consists of themidbrain, medulla, and pons.The cerebellum has an outer cortex, internal white matter, and areas of gray matter buried deep in the white mattertrueHow many cervical nerves are there?8Neurons located in the posterior (dorsal) region of the spinal cord's gray matter belong to this group.sensoryHow many thoracic nerves are there?12The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?arachnoid and piaThe telencephalon develops into what adult brain structure?cerebrumSleep-wake cycles are controlled by the pineal gland and thehypothalamusCerebrospinal fluid is located within thesubarachnoid spaceThe cerebellum has an outer cortex, internal white matter, and areas of gray matter buried deep in the white matter.trueWhich of these regions of the brain regulates body temperature, hunger, and thirst?hypothalamusDamage to the ventral root causes paralysis.trueWhich of these regions of the brain regulates hormonal secretions from the pituitary gland (hypophysis)?hypothalamusWhite matter fibers that send sensory information to the brain are:ascendingThe collection of nerves at the end of the spinal cord is the:cauda equinaWhite matter fibers that cross through to the other side of the cord are:commisuralWhich of these regions functions to direct nearly all sensory input, except olfactory impulses, to the cerebral cortex?thalamusSpinal nerve pairs in the cervical region of the spinal cord are found inferior to the vertebral bodies of the same number.falseWhich of these regions is part of the diencephalon?hypothalamusHow many sacral nerves are there?5The end of the spinal cord is the:conus medullarisThe white matter of the spinal cord contains ascending and descending pathways known as tracts.trueNeurons located in the anterior (ventral) region of the spinal cord's gray matter belong to this group.motorThe second largest region of the brain is thecelebellumThe medullary respiratory center controls the rhythm and rate of breathing.trueCell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located inthe dorsal root ganglionA deep groove on the surface of the cerebral cortex is called afissureWhich of these regions of the brain has frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, as well as the insula?cerebrumCerebrospinal fluid passes through choroidal villi to enter the superior sagittal sinus.falseWhich of the following is not a function of nuclei within the reticular formation?consolidate and store memoriesIt is easy to confuse the terms sulcus and gyrus (on the cerebral cortex). The difference between these two terms is thata gyrus is a ridge, and a sulcus is a grooveThe amygdala is part of the limbic system and has neurons that process the emotions and reactions to fear.trueThe sheet of dura mater that separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres is thefalx cerebriTwo parts of the brain that are most involved in emotions are thelimbic system and hypothalamus.The insula is considered to be part of the ________.cerebrumWhich of the following grooves separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?transverse cerebral fissureWhich of these regions has two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum?cerebrumThe function of the blood-brain barrier is tohelp protect the central nervous systemA shallow groove on the surface of the cerebral cortex is called asulcusThe limbic system has neural ties to the autonomic nervous system, the hypothalamus, and the reticular formation.trueThe visual association area of the cerebral cortex is located in theoccipital lobeCerebrospinal fluid is produced by choroid plexuses in all the following locations except thecentral canalCutting the corpus callosum would lead to which of the following?The right cerebral hemisphere cannot communicate directly with the left hemisphere.Which of these lobes of the cerebrum lies posterior to the central sulcus?parietal lobeThe fluid-filled ventricles within the cerebrum are similar in function to the ________ of the spinal cord.central canalThe only one of the meninges that follows the brain surface into a cerebral sulcus is thepia matterThe abstract representation of the homunculus overlaid on the somatosensory cerebral cortex is found on the:postcentral gyrusAfter someone faints, smelling salts of ammonia may be placed under the person's nose. The person breathes the ammonia vapors, which deliver a sharp jolt to the nasal membranes, and the person wakes up. This illustratesthe function of sensory input to the reticular activating system.The occipital lobe contains which functional area?primary visualA "motor homunculus" can be visualized as an overlay on the precentral gyrus. The reason why the facial region of this homunculus covers such a large surface area is becausewe have very expressive facesWhich of the following is not part of the basal ganglia?Wernicke's areaA cerebrovascular accident patient who is unable to recognize faces and objects but can still visually perceive spatial arrangement of objects most likely has damage tothe temporal lobeThe reticular activating system (RAS) contains structures that regulate and cause emotional responses.falseWhich of the following is not a function of nuclei within the reticular formation?consolidate and store memoriesCutting the corpus callosum would lead to which of the following?The right cerebral hemisphere cannot communicate directly with the left hemisphere.Which of the following is a motor area for vision?frontal eye fieldAll of the following are exteroceptors: tactile corpuscles, lamellar corpuscles, and tactile epithelial cells.trueThe cranial nerve pair with three large branches is:VThe primary proprioceptors are muscle spindles, tendon organs, and joint kinesthetic receptorstrueWhich cranial nerve pair has three major branches, the maxillary, mandibular, and ophthalmic divisions?V: trigeminalWhich of the following regions is not innervated by nerves of the sacral plexus (L4 - S4)?anterior thighWhich cranial nerve, along with the VI/abducens and II/oculomotor nerves, has somatic motor fibers that control eye movement?IV: trochlearAll of the special senses taste, smell, vision, hearing, and equilibrium are part of the afferent division of the peripheral nervous system.trueA person who cannot blink or smile could have damage to which cranial nerve?VII: facialSpinal nerves arepresent in 31 pairs.Disorders of balance may follow trauma to which nerve?vestibulocochlearTo avoid double vision, which of the following groups of cranial nerves must be functioning correctly?III, IV, and VIWhen you contract your Biceps brachii muscle, you are utilizing the somatic sensory portion of the nervous system.falseWhich cranial nerve pair innervates muscles that move the head and neck?accessoryAn interoceptor receives information from receptors in the skin, such as temperature, pressure, and pain.falseSpinal nerves found at the level of L4 to about S4 form thesacral plexusWhich of the cranial nerves listed below is a special somatic sensory nerve?vestibulocochlearMotor neurons to skeletal muscle belong to thesomatic division of the nervous system.A receptor that monitors stretch of the stomach can be classified as amechanoreceptor and interoceptor.Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all of the following except theopticA receptor that monitors stretch of the patellar tendon can be classified as amechanoreceptor and proprioceptor.A person who cannot blink or smile could have damage to which cranial nerve?VII: facialSensory fibers of which cranial nerve pair is involved in the sense of smell?I: olfactoryOf the exteroceptors, only tactile corpuscles, lamellar corpuscles, and bulbous corpuscles are encapsulated.trueWhich of the following is unencapsulated?free nerve endingsThe only cranial nerve that travels into the abdomen is thevagusThe cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all of the following except theoculomotorWhich cranial nerve pair has two sensory branches that are involved in hearing and balance?VIII: vestibulocochlearThe major nerve plexus to the upper limbs is thebrachial plexusBoth the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions are part of the somatic motor nervous division.falseParasympathetic stimulation of blood vessels causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure.falseVisceral pain results from all the following exceptcutting of an organAnother name for the ANS is thegeneral visceral motor system.The part of the brain that exerts more control over autonomic functioning than any other part is thehypothalamus.Which division of the nervous system is characterized by highly branched postganglionic fibers that innervate multiple organs?sympatheticParasympathetic stimulation of the heart decreases heart rate, resulting in a drop in blood pressure.trueWhat is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation of respiratory bronchioles in the lungs?constrictionWhich one of these is solely innervated by the parasympathetic division?ciliary muscle of the eyeThe sympathetic system causesincreased blood glucose, heart rate, and blood pressure, and decreased peristalsis.Parasympathetic stimulation of the pelvic organs cause defecation, voiding of urine, and erection.truePostganglionic sympathetic fibers are relatively long compared to those of the parasympathetic division.trueWhich of these characteristics definitively distinguishes the autonomic nervous system from the somatic nervous system?cell bodies outside the CNSSympathetic trunk ganglia contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons and are located in the dorsal root of the spinal cord.falseParasympathetic ganglia that are located within the walls of the innervated organs are calledintramural gangliaAll of the following have only sympathetic innervation except thesalivary glands.Adrenergic hormones are secreted into the bloodstream in this region of the adrenal gland.medullaWhich division of the autonomic nervous system innervates the sweat glands in skin?sympatheticCardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all of the following exceptdilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera.Cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located within thelateral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cordThe ANS stimulates cardiac muscle as well as smooth muscle and glands. Which of the following nerves carries autonomic fibers that increase the rate of cardiac muscle contraction?sympathetic nerves from the middle and inferior cervical ganglionParasympathetic fibers innervate the sweat glands, arrector pili, and smooth muscles of the arteries.falseWhich autonomic division increases heart rate?sympatheticDivision of the ANS most active when the body is at rest describes theparasympathetic division.The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is thebrain stem and the sacral region of the cordWhich one of these is solely innervated by the parasympathetic division?ciliary muscle of the eyeThe adrenal medulla is stimulated by preganglionic neurons localized to gray matter of the spinal cordin the lower thoracic regionThe cell bodies of postganglionic neurons that stimulate secretion of the parotid gland are in theotic ganglionFocusing the eye on a nearby object in the field of vision is a function of which division of the ANS?parasympatheticAdrenergic postganglionic neurons release the hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine.trueIdentify the pathway that correctly traces the movement of preganglionic sympathetic fibers.ventral root to white ramus communicans to sympathetic trunk ganglionSympathetic structures of the abdomen that lie anterior to the vertebral column.collateral gangliaThe parasympathetic nervous system is characterized byperipheral ganglia near the organs, and short postganglionic fibers.Division of the ANS most active during vigorous exercise describes thesympathetic divisionSympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in thethoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine.The general visceral motor division of the peripheral nervous system describes theautonomic nervous system.Another name for a sympathetic trunk ganglion isparavertebral ganglion