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What is 1 + 3?
what term can be used synonymously with chronic laminitis?
carbohydrate overload model
experimentally what is the classic model for the predictable development of laminitis?
bedding with what type of shavings has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of laminitis?
exogenous steroid use has been shown to cause laminitis, especially with the use of which one?
term for laminitis caused by excessive concussive forces on the foot
what is the predominant pathophysiology theory for the development of laminitis?
reflex hyperemia, increased hoof temperature
in the vascular theory there is initial reduced perfusion causing digital ischemia. lameness develops when the vasoconstriction disappears and what 2 clinical signs are noted?
compartment syndrome, reperfusion injury
in the vascular theory, the inflammatory response is believed to result in what 2 conditions?
in the progression of laminitis, the development of what denotes the transition from acute to chronic laminitis?
metalloproteinase, toxic/metabolic, traumatic
3 other main pathophysiology theories for laminitis other than the vascular theory
disruption of laminar attachments
in the metalloproteinase theory, excessive activation of these enzymes will result in what?
what is the dominant force on the foot that leads to laminitis?
weight of horse, size of foot
vertical load on a foot is dependent on what 2 factors?
what type of displacement is caused by forces from the DDF and the dorsal hoof wall?
rotational displacement can sometimes be attributed to faster growth rate of the heel or the toe?
is there a poorer prognosis with rotational or vertical displacement of the foot?
is it more common to have laminitis in both front or hind limbs?
in a laminitic horse, would you expect to feel the digital pulses?
in a normal horse, would you expect to feel the digital pulses?
is the foot usually cold or warm when laminitis is present?
where can a depression/sinking be noted that is a sign of laminitis?
how is pain in the hoof typically evaluated?
where on the hoof do you apply the hoof tester?
when performing radiography to assess laminitis, it is most important to evaluate the position of which bone?
when evaluating laminitis with a radiograph, is it more important to get a dorsal or a lateral radiograph?
developmental, acute, subacute, chronic
4 stages of laminitis
in which stage of laminitis is prevention of further progression still possible?
in which stage of laminitis are the first clinical signs identified?
promote digital vascular perfusion
what is the main means to control pain in a laminitic horse?
to limit edema formation, what anti-inflammatory / free radical scavenger can be placed on the coronary band?
drugs used to promote vasodilation are only indicated in which stage of laminitis?
nitroglycerine, acepromazine, isoxuprine, l-arginine
4 drugs used to cause vasodilation in laminitic horses
what effect of glucocorticoids causes them to be contraindicated in cases of laminitis?
what type of shaving is ideal for a laminitic horse?