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The IMViC test was developed as a means of separating members Iof the ?


enterobacteria are also called?


The IMViC is use to see if there is blank was contaminated by blank

Water, sewage

The IMViC test particulary For


The IMViC test are how many test?


I in IMViC stands for


The indolence test test for


M in IMViC test for

Methyl red

Methyl red test for

Acid production from glucose

V in IMViC stands for


Voges-proskauer test for

Production of acetoin from glucose

c in iMViC stands


Citrate test for

The use of citrate as the sole carbon source

Escherichia Coli usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate

Positive, positive, negative, negative

Citrobacter freudii usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate

Negative, positive, negative, positive

Enterobacter aerogenes usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate

Negative, negative, positive, positive

Enterobacter cloacae

Negative, negative, positive, positive,

Serrate marcescens usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate

Neagtive, positive but can be negative, positive, positive

Roteus vulgariS usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate

Postive, positive, negative, negative

Proteus mirabilis

Negative , positive, negative but can be positive , positive

This has been developed that provide a large number of results from one inoculation

Rapid identification methods

Examples of rapid identification methods

Enterotube 2 and API 20E

What test are used to identifying oxidase-negative, gram - negative bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae

enterotube 2 and API 20E

enterotube 2 is divided into into blank compartments, each containing a different substrate in blank

12, agar

Test used to identify oxidase-positive, gram-negative rods


API 20E consists of blank micro tubes containing blank substrates.

20, dehydrated

The substrates in API 20E are rehydrated by adding

Bacterial suspension

No culturing beyond the initial blank is necessary with rapid identification systems.


Rapid identifiacation systems is as blank as conventional test-tube methods


Computerized analysis of test results increases accuracy bc each test is given a?

Point value

Test that are more important than others are given

More points

iMViC test are given blank points


As commercial identification systems are developed, they can provide better standardization, in blank because they overcome the limitations of hunting through a blank, preparing blank, and blank test within a laboratory or between different laboratories.

Identification, key, media, evaluating

Benefits of enterics

Help protect GI tract from infection, some produce vitamins

Gram negative, bacilli, facultative


Similarities between coliform and non coliforms

Both enterics


Can ferment lactose

Non coliform

Cant ferment lactose

microorganisms that may be present for a few days or months in the body

transient microbia

at one time, bacteria and fungi were thought to be blank thus called blank

plants, flora

realtionship between mirobiota and something


one organisms benefits, one is harmed


both organisms benefit


blank synthesis blank and blank used by a human host, this is a blank relationship

e.coli, vitamin k and folic acid

one organisms gain, one is harmed


in the disease state, blank is parasite, and is harming its human host


a microorgansim in disease state is called a


microorganism that are not always parastic but can become them


the route of acces to the human body

portal of entery

some microbes cause disease only when they gain access by the correct

portal of entry

the blank is an inhospital environment for most microorganisms


the dry layers of blank that make up blank, are not easily colonized by most microbes

keratin containing cells, epidermis

this is secreted by oil glands and inhibits bacterial growth


blank in perspiration cause a blank environment

salts, hypertonic

perspiration and sebum are nutritive for certian microbes, this makes those microbes blank

normal microbiota

normal microbiota tend to resist blank and blank of the skin

drying and relatively high salt conc.

more bacteria are found in blank area


bacteria of the skin would most liekly be in blank and blank, than blank and blak

axilla, side of nose, arms or legs

blank microbiota tend to be present on hands and arms in contact with the environment


blank live in hair follicles on sebum from oil glands


the blank acid that propionbacterium produces, maintins the ph of the skin between blank and blank. this blanks the growth of other bacteria

propionic acid, 3 to 5, suppreses

most bacteria on the skin are blank and blank

gram positive and salt tolerant

blank is part of the normal bacteria of the skin and is also considered a pathogen

staphylococcus aureus

an enzyme that coagulates the fibrin in blood


staphylococcus aureus produces blank that makes it blannk

coagulase, pathogenic

a test for the presence of coagulase is usesd to distinguish blank for other sepecies of blank

s. aureus, staphylococcus

consist of the nose and throat

upper respiratory system

consist of laynx, trachea, bronchila tubes, and alveoli

lower respiratory system

the lower respiratory system is usually sterile because of the efficient functioning of

the ciliary escalator

the upper respiratory tract is in contact with what, which contains blank.

the air we breathe, microorganisms

the blank is a moist environment allowing many blank to est. residence

thoart, bacteria

normal bacteria in throat

Staphlycoccus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Haemophilius

the rate of infection in the upper resipartory is decreased by

microbial antagonism

micros of normal flora suppress the growth of other micros through competition for nutrients and production of inhibitory substances

microbial antagonism

sore thoarts

acute pharyngitis

species that are predominant in the throat cultures and major cause of bacterial sore thoarts


are identifies by biochemical characteristics, including hemolytic reactions, and antigenic characteristics


antigenic characteristics

Lancefileds system

blank reactions are based on hemolysins that are produced by blank while growing on blank

hemolytic, strepococci, blood-enriched agar

blood agar is usually made with blank, blank, blank

defibrinated sheep bloos(5.0%), sodium chloride(.5%), nutrient agar

this is used to minimize spontaneous hemolysis

sodium chloride

three patterens of hemolysis of blood agar

beta, alpha, gamma

complete hemolysis, giving a clear zone with a clean edge around the colony


green, cloudy zone around the colony, partial destruction of RBC due to bacteria-produced hydrogen peroxide


no hemolysis and no change in blood agar around the colony


streptococci that are alpha and gamma are usually

normal flora

beta streptococci are usually


streptococci can be antigenically classified into

Lancefield groups A though O

Lancefield groups are classified by theirs

antigens on cell walls

over 90% of streptococcal infections are caused by

beta hemolytic group A streptococci

beta hemolytic group A streptococci are assigned to the species

s. pyogenes

s. pyogenes is sensitive to

antibiotic bacitracin

used to distinguish pathogenic s. pneumonia from other alpha-hemolysis strepococci

optochin sensitivity

the result of hydrochloric acid produced from the blank and rapid movement in the blank cause very little

stomach, small intestine, microorganisms

mircobes in the large intestine exceed blank bacteria per gram of feces


most microbs in the large intestines have blank and blank relationship

mutualistic, commensals

some intestinal bacteria syntesis

folic acids and vitamin K

the normal intestinal mircobs prevent colonization of pathogenic species by producing

antimicrobial substances and competition

large intestine microbes are primarily


Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Eschericha, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus

anaerobes in large intestine

Eschericha, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus

strictly facultative anerobes in large intestine

most diseases if GI tract result from the ingestion of food or water that contains

pathogenic microbs

gram - facultative anaerobes rodes include

the enteric family

lactose fermentating enterics, not usually not pathogenic


non lactose fermentating, usually pathogenic

salmonella and shigella

media used to test gi tract diseases

macconkey agar

macconkey agar is selective in that blank salts are inhibitory to blank organism, thus allowing the media to culture blank organisms

bile, gram +, gram -

MAC agar is differential in that blank organisms( also called coliforms) give blank, blank colonies. and blank organism give blank, blank colonies

lactose fermentating, red, opaque, non lactose fermentating, colorless, translucent

Triple Sugar Agar contains

glucose(.1), lactose(1), surcose (1), ferrous acid(.02), phenol red, nutrient agar

TSI agar is used after

MAC agar

in TSI, if the organism ferments only glucose, the blank will turn blank in a few hours

phenol red indicator, yellow

in TSI, the bacteria will quickly exhaust the limited supply of blank, and start oxidizing blan k blank for energy, giving off blank as an end product

glucose, amino acids, ammonia

oxidation of blnak blank blanks the pH, and the indicATon in the slant portion of the tube will turn back to blank, but the butt of the tube will remain blank

amino acids, increases, red, yellow

in TSI slant ferments lactose and/or sucrose, the butt and slant will turn blank and remain blank for days due to the increased level of blank production

yellow, yellow, acid

Gas production by an organism can be ascertained by the apperance of blank in TSI agar


TSI can also be used to indicate whether blank has been produced due to the blank of blank amino acids

hydrogen sulfide, desulurization, sulfur-containing

H2S reacts with blank in the medium of TSI producing, blank, a blank percipitate

ferrous sulfate, ferrous sulfide, black

the pressence of enterococci can be used to identify

fecal containmantion

fairly specific for their mammalian hosts


Streptococcus faecalis in blank, s. bovis in blank, s. equinus in blank

humas, cows, horses

s. faecalis broth vsn be used to detect


SF broth contains blank to inhibit the growth of blank.

sodium azide, gram -

enterococci will grow and ferment the blank in broth


growth and a change in the blank blank indicator from blank(6.6) to blank(5.2) may indicate the pressence of enterococci

bromcresol purple, purple, yellow,

tomato juice agar is an blank media used to encourage the growth of blank

enriched, lactobacilli

lactobacilli does not grow well on ordinary media, but its growth is enriched by the addition of blank and blank

tomato juice, peptonized milk

the blanl and blank systems are closely related anatomicalley and some diseases that affect the one system also affect the other, esp in blank

urinary and gential, female

bacteria in the uretha

Bacteroides, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Enterics

Most bacteria in urine is rhe result of containmation by blank microbiota during passage


the presence of bacteria in urine is not considered a UTI unless there are blank bacteria of one species or blank coliforms per militer of urine

>1000, >100

inflammation if the urinary bladder


inflammation of the kidney


many infections of the urinary tract are caused by blank pathogens and are related to blank contamination of the urethra and to medical procedures, such as blank

opportunistic, fecal, catherization

standard examination of the urine consists of plate count with blank agar for the total number of organisms, coupled wiht a streak plate of undiluted urine on blank agar

blood, MAC

made by voiding a small volumne from the bladder before collection, this blanks away skin microbs

midstream sample, washes

E.coli and Proteus are gram blank blank that commonly cause blank, they are both blank and e.coli is also blank

negative rods, cystitis, enterics, coliforms


determine coliforms/enteric/fecal contamination


culture yeast

normal flora are only in urethra if

no UTA

blank is actively motile and exhibits "swarimg" on solid media where the cells at the periphery move away from the main colony


gram negative aerobic rod


commonly found in soil and other enviroments

pseudomonas aeruginosa

can cause UTI, burn and womb infections, and abscesses in right conditions

pseudomonas aeruginosa

infections are characterized by blue-green pus

pseudomonas aeruginosa

blue pus


extracellular, water-soluble pigment produced by pseudomonas aeruginosa


most common STI


gonorrhea is caused by

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is gram blank and blank

negative, diplococci

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