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177 terms

Micro lab study guide:)

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The IMViC test was developed as a means of separating members Iof the ?
Enterobacteriaceae
enterobacteria are also called?
Enterics
The IMViC is use to see if there is blank was contaminated by blank
Water, sewage
The IMViC test particulary For
Coliforms
The IMViC test are how many test?
Four
I in IMViC stands for
Indole
The indolence test test for
Tryptophan
M in IMViC test for
Methyl red
Methyl red test for
Acid production from glucose
V in IMViC stands for
voges-proskauer
Voges-proskauer test for
Production of acetoin from glucose
c in iMViC stands
Citrate
Citrate test for
The use of citrate as the sole carbon source
Escherichia Coli usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate
Positive, positive, negative, negative
Citrobacter freudii usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate
Negative, positive, negative, positive
Enterobacter aerogenes usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate
Negative, negative, positive, positive
Enterobacter cloacae
Negative, negative, positive, positive,
Serrate marcescens usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate
Neagtive, positive but can be negative, positive, positive
Roteus vulgariS usually test blank for indolence, blank for methyl red, blank voges-proskauer, and blank for citrate
Postive, positive, negative, negative
Proteus mirabilis
Negative , positive, negative but can be positive , positive
This has been developed that provide a large number of results from one inoculation
Rapid identification methods
Examples of rapid identification methods
Enterotube 2 and API 20E
What test are used to identifying oxidase-negative, gram - negative bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae
enterotube 2 and API 20E
enterotube 2 is divided into into blank compartments, each containing a different substrate in blank
12, agar
Test used to identify oxidase-positive, gram-negative rods
oxi/Ferm
API 20E consists of blank micro tubes containing blank substrates.
20, dehydrated
The substrates in API 20E are rehydrated by adding
Bacterial suspension
No culturing beyond the initial blank is necessary with rapid identification systems.
Isolation
Rapid identifiacation systems is as blank as conventional test-tube methods
Accurate
Computerized analysis of test results increases accuracy bc each test is given a?
Point value
Test that are more important than others are given
More points
iMViC test are given blank points
Equal
As commercial identification systems are developed, they can provide better standardization, in blank because they overcome the limitations of hunting through a blank, preparing blank, and blank test within a laboratory or between different laboratories.
Identification, key, media, evaluating
Benefits of enterics
Help protect GI tract from infection, some produce vitamins
Gram negative, bacilli, facultative
Enterics
Similarities between coliform and non coliforms
Both enterics
Coliform
Can ferment lactose
Non coliform
Cant ferment lactose
microorganisms that may be present for a few days or months in the body
transient microbia
at one time, bacteria and fungi were thought to be blank thus called blank
plants, flora
realtionship between mirobiota and something
symbiosis
one organisms benefits, one is harmed
commensal
both organisms benefit
mutalism
blank synthesis blank and blank used by a human host, this is a blank relationship
e.coli, vitamin k and folic acid
one organisms gain, one is harmed
parasitism
in the disease state, blank is parasite, and is harming its human host
microorganism
a microorgansim in disease state is called a
pathogen
microorganism that are not always parastic but can become them
opportunists
the route of acces to the human body
portal of entery
some microbes cause disease only when they gain access by the correct
portal of entry
the blank is an inhospital environment for most microorganisms
skin
the dry layers of blank that make up blank, are not easily colonized by most microbes
keratin containing cells, epidermis
this is secreted by oil glands and inhibits bacterial growth
sebum
blank in perspiration cause a blank environment
salts, hypertonic
perspiration and sebum are nutritive for certian microbes, this makes those microbes blank
normal microbiota
normal microbiota tend to resist blank and blank of the skin
drying and relatively high salt conc.
more bacteria are found in blank area
moist
bacteria of the skin would most liekly be in blank and blank, than blank and blak
axilla, side of nose, arms or legs
blank microbiota tend to be present on hands and arms in contact with the environment
transient
blank live in hair follicles on sebum from oil glands
propionibacterium
the blank acid that propionbacterium produces, maintins the ph of the skin between blank and blank. this blanks the growth of other bacteria
propionic acid, 3 to 5, suppreses
most bacteria on the skin are blank and blank
gram positive and salt tolerant
blank is part of the normal bacteria of the skin and is also considered a pathogen
staphylococcus aureus
an enzyme that coagulates the fibrin in blood
coagulase
staphylococcus aureus produces blank that makes it blannk
coagulase, pathogenic
a test for the presence of coagulase is usesd to distinguish blank for other sepecies of blank
s. aureus, staphylococcus
consist of the nose and throat
upper respiratory system
consist of laynx, trachea, bronchila tubes, and alveoli
lower respiratory system
the lower respiratory system is usually sterile because of the efficient functioning of
the ciliary escalator
the upper respiratory tract is in contact with what, which contains blank.
the air we breathe, microorganisms
the blank is a moist environment allowing many blank to est. residence
thoart, bacteria
normal bacteria in throat
Staphlycoccus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Haemophilius
the rate of infection in the upper resipartory is decreased by
microbial antagonism
micros of normal flora suppress the growth of other micros through competition for nutrients and production of inhibitory substances
microbial antagonism
sore thoarts
acute pharyngitis
species that are predominant in the throat cultures and major cause of bacterial sore thoarts
streptococcal
are identifies by biochemical characteristics, including hemolytic reactions, and antigenic characteristics
Streptococci
antigenic characteristics
Lancefileds system
blank reactions are based on hemolysins that are produced by blank while growing on blank
hemolytic, strepococci, blood-enriched agar
blood agar is usually made with blank, blank, blank
defibrinated sheep bloos(5.0%), sodium chloride(.5%), nutrient agar
this is used to minimize spontaneous hemolysis
sodium chloride
three patterens of hemolysis of blood agar
beta, alpha, gamma
complete hemolysis, giving a clear zone with a clean edge around the colony
beta-hemolysis
green, cloudy zone around the colony, partial destruction of RBC due to bacteria-produced hydrogen peroxide
alpha-hemolysis
no hemolysis and no change in blood agar around the colony
gamma-hemolysis
streptococci that are alpha and gamma are usually
normal flora
beta streptococci are usually
pathogens
streptococci can be antigenically classified into
Lancefield groups A though O
Lancefield groups are classified by theirs
antigens on cell walls
over 90% of streptococcal infections are caused by
beta hemolytic group A streptococci
beta hemolytic group A streptococci are assigned to the species
s. pyogenes
s. pyogenes is sensitive to
antibiotic bacitracin
used to distinguish pathogenic s. pneumonia from other alpha-hemolysis strepococci
optochin sensitivity
the result of hydrochloric acid produced from the blank and rapid movement in the blank cause very little
stomach, small intestine, microorganisms
mircobes in the large intestine exceed blank bacteria per gram of feces
10^11
most microbs in the large intestines have blank and blank relationship
mutualistic, commensals
some intestinal bacteria syntesis
folic acids and vitamin K
the normal intestinal mircobs prevent colonization of pathogenic species by producing
antimicrobial substances and competition
large intestine microbes are primarily
anaerobes
Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Eschericha, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus
anaerobes in large intestine
Eschericha, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus
strictly facultative anerobes in large intestine
most diseases if GI tract result from the ingestion of food or water that contains
pathogenic microbs
gram - facultative anaerobes rodes include
the enteric family
lactose fermentating enterics, not usually not pathogenic
coliforms
non lactose fermentating, usually pathogenic
salmonella and shigella
media used to test gi tract diseases
macconkey agar
macconkey agar is selective in that blank salts are inhibitory to blank organism, thus allowing the media to culture blank organisms
bile, gram +, gram -
MAC agar is differential in that blank organisms( also called coliforms) give blank, blank colonies. and blank organism give blank, blank colonies
lactose fermentating, red, opaque, non lactose fermentating, colorless, translucent
Triple Sugar Agar contains
glucose(.1), lactose(1), surcose (1), ferrous acid(.02), phenol red, nutrient agar
TSI agar is used after
MAC agar
in TSI, if the organism ferments only glucose, the blank will turn blank in a few hours
phenol red indicator, yellow
in TSI, the bacteria will quickly exhaust the limited supply of blank, and start oxidizing blan k blank for energy, giving off blank as an end product
glucose, amino acids, ammonia
oxidation of blnak blank blanks the pH, and the indicATon in the slant portion of the tube will turn back to blank, but the butt of the tube will remain blank
amino acids, increases, red, yellow
in TSI slant ferments lactose and/or sucrose, the butt and slant will turn blank and remain blank for days due to the increased level of blank production
yellow, yellow, acid
Gas production by an organism can be ascertained by the apperance of blank in TSI agar
bubbles
TSI can also be used to indicate whether blank has been produced due to the blank of blank amino acids
hydrogen sulfide, desulurization, sulfur-containing
H2S reacts with blank in the medium of TSI producing, blank, a blank percipitate
ferrous sulfate, ferrous sulfide, black
the pressence of enterococci can be used to identify
fecal containmantion
fairly specific for their mammalian hosts
enterococci
Streptococcus faecalis in blank, s. bovis in blank, s. equinus in blank
humas, cows, horses
s. faecalis broth vsn be used to detect
enterococci
SF broth contains blank to inhibit the growth of blank.
sodium azide, gram -
enterococci will grow and ferment the blank in broth
glucose
growth and a change in the blank blank indicator from blank(6.6) to blank(5.2) may indicate the pressence of enterococci
bromcresol purple, purple, yellow,
tomato juice agar is an blank media used to encourage the growth of blank
enriched, lactobacilli
lactobacilli does not grow well on ordinary media, but its growth is enriched by the addition of blank and blank
tomato juice, peptonized milk
the blanl and blank systems are closely related anatomicalley and some diseases that affect the one system also affect the other, esp in blank
urinary and gential, female
bacteria in the uretha
Bacteroides, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Enterics
Most bacteria in urine is rhe result of containmation by blank microbiota during passage
skin
the presence of bacteria in urine is not considered a UTI unless there are blank bacteria of one species or blank coliforms per militer of urine
>1000, >100
inflammation if the urinary bladder
cystitis
inflammation of the kidney
pyelonephritis
many infections of the urinary tract are caused by blank pathogens and are related to blank contamination of the urethra and to medical procedures, such as blank
opportunistic, fecal, catherization
standard examination of the urine consists of plate count with blank agar for the total number of organisms, coupled wiht a streak plate of undiluted urine on blank agar
blood, MAC
made by voiding a small volumne from the bladder before collection, this blanks away skin microbs
midstream sample, washes
E.coli and Proteus are gram blank blank that commonly cause blank, they are both blank and e.coli is also blank
negative rods, cystitis, enterics, coliforms
MAC IS USED TO
determine coliforms/enteric/fecal contamination
SAB
culture yeast
normal flora are only in urethra if
no UTA
blank is actively motile and exhibits "swarimg" on solid media where the cells at the periphery move away from the main colony
Proteus
gram negative aerobic rod
pseudomonas
commonly found in soil and other enviroments
pseudomonas aeruginosa
can cause UTI, burn and womb infections, and abscesses in right conditions
pseudomonas aeruginosa
infections are characterized by blue-green pus
pseudomonas aeruginosa
blue pus
pyocyanin
extracellular, water-soluble pigment produced by pseudomonas aeruginosa
pyocyanin
most common STI
gonorrhea
gonorrhea is caused by
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is gram blank and blank
negative, diplococci
can be spread either directly or indirectly from one host to another
communicable disease
cause disease when the host is weaken
noncommunicable disease
the science that deals when and where disease occur and how they are transmitted in the human population
epidemilogy
constantly present in population
endemic
disease in population
epedmic
first reported patient in a disease outbreak
index case
one of the first steps in analyzing a disease outbreak is to
case definition
when microorganisms are carried on liquid drops from a cough or sneeze
droplet infection
contaminated inanimate objects
formites
insects and other arthropods that carry pathogens
vectors
insects carry pathigens on there feet an may transfer the pathogen to a persons food
mechanical transmission
transmission by an arthopods bite
biological transmission
continual source of infection
reservoir
humans who habor pathogens but who dont exhibit any signs of disease
carriers
show the number of cases and their date of onset
epidemic curve
the epidemic curve provides a BLANK display of the outbreaks blank and the time trend
visla, magnitude
occur between high-molecular weight, particulate antigens and anitbodies
agglutination reactions
clumping of cells
agglutination
RBC clumping
hemagglutination
hemagglutination occurs when blank blank is mixed with type blank RBC
anti-A antiserum, A
when anti-A serum is mixed with type B RBC
no hemagglutination occurs
Individulas are Rh positive when blank is present
D antigen
Rh negative inidividuals do not naturally have blank in ther sera
anti-D antibodies
Type blank is considered the universal donor bc this type has blank therefore it cant be rejected by any antibodes
O, NO ANITGENS
a specfic type of micros that requires oxygen to survive, but requires environments containong lower levels of oxygen than in atmosphere
microaerphilic
why did we put put a dish the in candle jar
bc streptococci are microaerophilic
these microns cannot break down hydrogen peroxide and surviv in normal con. od O2
streptococci
a catalase breaks down
H2O2 into at and 02