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ISDN features

Integrated Services Digital Network - digital, dialup, no modem, terminator equipment, old, 64Kbps per channel, pay by month and minute

ISDN terms

BRI, PRI, 2B+D, U interace, Network Terminator 1, S/T interface, termianl equipment, TE1 device, TE2 device, terminal adaper

DSL features

Digital Subscriber Line - variety of services faster than ISDN, differing upstream/downstream speeds, high frequencies on phone line, direct permanent connection

ADSL terms

ADSL Termination Unit Remote (ATU-R) = transceiver = 'modem', Digital Subscriver Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM)

ADSL speed

Asymmetric, 8.448 Mbps down, 1.088 Mbps up

CATV features

broadband, not dedicated link, bandwidth sharing, neighbors on same network, asymmetrical, requires VPN for connection to remote LAN

leased line T-1 speed

24 channels of 64Kbps = 1.544 Mbps

T-3 speed

672 channels of 64 Kbps = 44.736 Mbps

leased line infrastructure

CSU/DSU channel service unit/digital sercie unit 'digital modem' at each end


Synchronous Optical Network or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. OC1 - OC192


mainframes to terminals

role of remote networking protocols

WAN data-link layer protocols, end-to-end connction, simple, part of TCP/IP suite, PPP and SLIP, no physical layer specification

SLIP frame

network layer datagram + 1B SLIP end delimiter


Serial Line Internet Protocol

SLIP missing features

addresses, protocol identification (only one protocol allowed during a connection), error detection


Point to Point Protocol replaced SLIP for remote networking

PPP connection establishment protocols

Link Control Protocol LCP to agree on parameters
Authentication - Password Authentication Prot PAP or Challenge Handshake CHAP
establish connections for control protocols IPCP

PPP payload size

1500 B data+pad

PPP establishing connection phases

link dead - physical layer message sent
Link Establishment - PPP frame containing LCP configure request message and replies until one LCP ACK message
Authentication - optional. PAP, CHAP, or others in PPP frame
Link Quality Monitoring - optional. LQRP
Network Layer Protocol Config - network control protocol connections establishment
Link Open - PPP link is operating
Link Termination - exchange LCP termination messages

PAP definition

Password Auth Prot clear text password

CHAP definition

Challenge Handshake Auth Prot - MD5 hashing on password, but doesn't encrypt connection data and is reversible


one-way authentication, encryption based on the password


two-way authentication, encryption key for each connection and direction. Preferred CHAP method

EAP definition

Extensible Authentication Prot - shell allowing other protocols that use more than passwords for Windows

PEAP definition

Protected EAP - account name + password for wireless

MD5-Challenge definition

Message Digest 5 Challenge - in EAP messages. Non-windows clients. Doesn't encrypt connection data

Smart Cart or Other Certificate alternative name

EAP-Transport Layer Security

RADIUS definition

Remote Auth Dial-In User Service - Internet Auth Service (IAS) central server handles all auth requests

Kerberos auth process

1 client sends request to Key Distribution Center KDC
2 KDC sends ticket-granting-ticket TGT including key to client encrypted based on password
3 client enters password to decrypt TGT
4 client uses key from TGT to encrypt request for ticket from Ticket Granting Server TGS
5 TGS received key from KDC and uses it to decrypt ticket request. TGS sends encrypted server ticket to client

Kerberos access granted by auth

client sends pre-encrypted ticket to destination server, which has key from TGS. Ticket includes session key which client and server use to encrypt/decrypt data

PPPoE definition

Point to Point Prot over Ethernet - TCP/IP suite, to establish separate PPP connections for many clients with remote resources on LANS

dialup VPN process

1 client connects to ISP PPP (phone connection to ISP)
2 client makes TCP control connection to target server PPTP (internet connection from ISP to remote resource)
3 PPP frame addressed to target server is encapsulated and encrypted in IP datagram addressed to remote gateway

dialup connection to remote private network

dial its number (long distance phone connection)

Microsoft terminal protocol

RDP Remote Desktop Protocol

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