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35 terms

Axial Myology

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Epicranius M.
-Epicranial aponeurosis-
Origin: All bellies- epicranial aponeurosis

Insertion: Occipital belly- occipital bone; Frontal belly- skin of eyebrow and nose; Lateral bellies- muscle and cartilage of the auricle.

Action: Move the scalp (wrinkle brow "wiggle" ears, etc.)
Orbicularis
The muscle which encircles the eyelids.

Action: Close Eyelids
Corrugator Supercilii M
Origin: Orbicularis oculi muscle and nasal prominence of frontal bone.

Insertion: skin of eyebrow

Action: Draw eyebrow downward and medially; the "frown" muscle
Orbicularis Oris M
The muscle which incircles the oral opening

Action: close and purse the lips
Levator Labii Superioris M
Origin: Maxilla and Zygomatic bone

Insertion: Into orbicularis oris m. of upper lip

Action: Elevate upper lip
Levator Anguli Oris M
Origin: Maxilla (canine fossa)

Insertion: Orbicularis Oris M. and skin at corner of mouth

Action: Raises angle of mouth
Zygomaticus Major M
Origin: Zygomatic bone (near temporal process)

Insertion: Orbicularis Oris M at angle (corner) of mouth

Action: Draw upper lip back and upward
Zygomaticus Minor M
Origin: Zygomatic bone (near maxillary suture)

Insertion: Orbicularis Oris and Levator Labii Superioris Muscles

Action: Draw upper lip and laterally
Depressor Labii Inferioris M
Origin: Anterior aspect of Mandible (between mandibular symphysis and mental foramen)

Insertion: Into orbicularis oris m (and skin) of lower lip

Action: depress lower lip
Depressor Anguli Oris M
Origin: anterior aspect of mandible

Insertion: into orbicularis oris m (and other mucles) near corner of mouth

Action: Depress corner of mouth
Nasalis Muscle
Origin: Maxilla

Insertion: into contralateral muscle (over bridge of nose) and into ala of nose

Action: wrinkle nose and dilate nostrils
Temporalis Muscle
Origin: Temporal Fossa of the skull

Insertion: Coronoid process (and adjacent ramus) of mandible

Action: elevate mandible (clench teeth)
Masseter Muscle
Origin: Zygomatic arch of the skull

Insertion: Coronoid process and lateral aspect of ramus of mandible (down to the angle)

Action: Elevate mandible (clench teeth)
Lateral Pterygoid Muscle
Origin: Lateral wall of pterygoid process and adjacent greater wing of sphenoid bone

Insertion: Condyloid process of mandible and articular disc of temporomandibular joint

Action: Protract Mandible, depress mandible (weakly)
Medial Pterygoid Muscle
Origin: between the medial and lateral walls of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, palatine bone, and maxilla.

Insertion: Medial aspect of the mandible (near the angle)

Action: Elevate mandible and move it laterally
Platysma (NOT MUSCLE)
Origin: Fascia over pectoralis major muscle and deltoideus muscle

Insertion: Lower mandibular region

Action: Depress lower lip, wrinkle skin of neck and upper chest (as in yelling/screaming)
Sternocleidomastoideus Muscle
Origin: Manubrium of the sternum and sternal extremity of the clavicle

Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone

Action: turn head toward opposite side (if acting unilaterally); flex joints of cervicle vertebral column (if acting bilaterally)
Pectoralis Major M
Origin: clavicle, sternum, first 6 ribs, and aponeurosis of external abdominal oblique muscle

Insertion: Crust of greater tubercle of humerus (lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus) and directly inferior to the greater tubercle of humerus

Action: Flex shoulder joint, adduct and medially rotate limb at shoulder joint
Pectoralis Minor M
Origin: Ribs 3-5/6 near costochondral joints

Insertion: coracoid process of scapula

Action: draw scapula anterior and down, elevate ribs
Serratus Anterior Muscle
Origin: Center of lateral aspects of first 8 or 9 ribs

Insertion: medial border of scapula (from superior angle to inferior angle)

Action: rotate scapula and pull it forward, elevate ribs
External Intercostal muscles
Origin: Inferior borders of ribs

Insertion: superior borders of ribs (each one inserts into the rib below its origin)

Action: elevate ribs (to increase the volume in the thoracic cavity), maintain tension in the intercostal spaces
Internal Intercostal muscles
Origin: Inferior borders of ribs

Insertion: superior borders of ribs (each one inserts into the rib below its origin)

Action: depress the ribs (to decrease the volume in the thoracic cavity), maintain tension in the intercostal spaces
Diaphragm (NO MUSCLE)
Is a thoracic muscle (study with respiratory system)
Rectus abdominis M
-tendinous intersectios of the rectus abdominis muscle-
-sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle-
-linea alba-
Origin: Crest and symphysis of pubis

Insertion: Xiphoid process of sternum and costal cartilages 5,6,7.

Action: Draw thorax downward (flex joints of vertebral column), compress abdomen.
External Abdominal Oblique Muscle
-Anterior layer of the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle-
-Inguinal ligament-
Origin: ribs 5-12

Insertion: anterior lamina of the sheath of rectus abdominis muscle (and thence to the linea alba), anterior half of iliac crest (lateral aspect), inguinal ligament.

Action: draw thorax downward (flex joints of vertebral column, compress abdomen, rotate vertebral column)
Internal abdominal oblique muscle
Origin: anterior half of the crest of ilium, lumbar fascia, iliac fascia, inguinal ligament

Insertion: ribs 10-12, sheath of rectus abdominis muscle (and thence to linea alba)

Action: draw thorax downward (flex joints of vertebral column), compress abdomen, and rotate vertebral column
Transversus abdominis muscle
-Posterior layer of the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle-
Origin: costal cartilages of ribs 7-12, lumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament.

Insertion: Xiphoid process of sternum, posterior lamina of sheath of rectus abdominis m. (and thence to linea alba).

Action: compress abdomen
Urogenital Diaphragm
KNOW IT
Pelvic Diaphragm
KNOW IT
Trapezius m
Origin: occipital bone, nuchal ligament, spinous process of C7 and thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: clavicle, spine and acromion of scapula

Action: draw head laterally or posteriorly, rotate scapula
Latissimus Dorsi m
Origin: spinous process of lower five or six thoracic vertebrae, those of the lumbar vertebrae and median sacral crest.

Insertion: with teres major muscle into the medial border of intertubercular groove (crest of lesser tubercle) of humerus.

Action: adduct limb at shoulder joint, rotate limb medially at shoulder joint, extend shoulder joint. The latissimus dorsi muscle is the most powerful "pull up" muscle
Rhomboideus major m
Origin: spinous processes (and corresponding supraspinous ligaments) of thoracic vertebrae 2-5

Insertion: medial border of scapula below level of its spine.

Action: pull (retract) scapula toward vertebral column
Rhomboideus minor m
Origin: spinous processes of C7 and T1

Insertion: medial border of scapula at the level of its spine

Action: pull scapula toward vertebral column and slightly superiorly
Levator Scapulae m
Origin: transverse processes of first four cervical vertebrae.

Insertion: superior angle of scapula

Action: elevate scapula
The erector spinae muscles
It consits of a Spinalis muscle, longissimus muscle, and iliocostalis muscle