52 terms

CH 42 Stress and Adaptation

Vocabulary key terms for Ch 42 of Taylor. contains content from NCLEX Qs from study guide ch. 42, and at end of taylor ch 42.
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adaptation
adjustment of living with other living things and environmental conditions
anxiety
vague sense of impending doom or apprehension precipitated by new and unknown experiences. THE MOST COMMON response to stress.
burnout
behaviors exhibited as the result of prolonged occupational stress
caregiver burden
stress responses experienced during prolonged periods of home care by family caregivers
coping mechanisms
patterns of behavior used to neutralize, deny, or counteract anxiety
crisis intervention
5 step problem solving technique to promote adaptation and improve future coping. 1. Identify prob. 2. list alternatives. 3. choose from alternatives. 4. implement. 5. evaluate.
defense mechanisms
forms of self-deception, UNCONSCIOUS process the self uses to protect itself from anxiety or threats to self-esteem.
fight-or-flight response
the body prepares itself against threat, to either resist or evade the danger.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
biochemical model of stress describing the body's general response to stress.
inflammatory response
localized response of the body to injury or infection; protective mechanism that eliminates invading pathogens and allows for tissue repair to occur
local adaptation syndrome (LAS)
localized response of the body to stress, precipitated by trauma or pathology
psychosomatic disorder
physiologic alterations and illness believed to be due to psychological influences
reflex pain response
Automatic response of the CNS to stimulus of pain
stress
condition in which the human system responds to change in its normal balanced state.
stressor
anything causing a person to experience stress; change in the balanced state.
Adaptation, NCLEX def.
the change that takes place as a result of a response to a stressor.
Autonomic system
The primary controller of homeostatic mechanisms.
As a person strives to meet basic human needs at each level,_________________________.
___stress can serve as either a stimulus or a barrier.
Maslow's hierarchy would likely describe a withdrawn and isolated patient as suffering:
love and belonging needs
homeostasis
when physiologic mechanisms within the body respond to internal changes to maintain an essential balance.
panic level of anxiety
loss of control, experiencing dread; manifested by increased physical activity, pressure/pain in chest, decreased motor control, lack of ability to concentrate or communicate, fixation on moment-to-moment.
severe anxiety
causes very narrow focus on specific detail. characterized by extreme fear of a danger that is not real, emotional stress that interferes with everyday life; manifested by poor motor control, trembling, nausea, headache, dizziness.
Maintaining self esteem_____________
___is an example of a task for a patient adapting to acute or chronic illness.
Although mild anxiety may interfere with sleep, _______
_____it also facilitates problem solving.
Severe anxiety creates a very narrow focus on specific detail, _________
___causing all behavior to be geared toward getting relief.
During the panic stage, the person cannot_________
___learn, concentrates only on the present situation, and often experiences feelings of impending doom.
Withdrawal behavior
Involves physical withdrawal from the threat or emotional reactions such as admitting defeat, becoming apathetic, or feeling guilty or ashamed.
Projection:
Occurs when a person's thoughts or impulses are attributed to another person.
Repression:
Occurs when a person involuntarily excludes an anxiety-producing event from conscious awareness.
Compensation:
A person attempts to overcome a perceived weakness by emphasizing a more desirable trait or overachieving in a more comfortable area.
Denial:
A person refuses to acknowledge the presence of a condition that is disturbing.
Displacement:
A person transfers an emotional reaction from one object or person to another object or person
Introjection:
A person incorporates qualities or values of another person into his or her own ego structure. In childhood, it assists with the formation of conscience.
Rationalization:
A person tries to give a logical or socially acceptable explanation for questionable behavior.
Reaction formation
A person develops conscious attitudes and behavior patterns that are opposite to what he or she would really like to do.
Regression:
A person returns to an earlier method of behaving
Repression:
A person voluntarily excludes and anxiety-producing event from conscious awareness
Sublimation:
A person substitutes a socially acceptable goal for one whose normal channel of expression is blocked. Ex. a person who is aggressive toward others becomes a star football player.
Undoing:
An act or communication used to negate a previous act or communication. Ex. an abusive husband brings his wife flowers.
Fight-or-flight
The Alarm Reaction stage of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) model of stress.
The Stage of Resistance of GAS is characterized by_____
the body's attempt to adapt to the stressor; a mobilization of resources try and achieve homeostasis.
The Stage of Exhaustion of GAS is when_______
the body rests and mobilizes for a return for normalcy, or reaches total exhaustion and death.
Developmental stress:
Occurs as a person progresses through the normal stages of growth and development from birth to old age
Situational stress:
Unpredictable, can occur at any time. Examples: illness or traumatic injury, marriage or divorce, loss, new job, role change.
Psychosocial stressors
Experiences of family members, accidents, horrors of history, rapid changes in the world, events of history, fear of violence against self, e.g. rape, mugging.
The steps of GAS (9):
1. Threat 2. Alarm reaction 3. Neuroendocrine activity increases. 4. Fight-or-flight. 5. Stage of resistance. 6. Neuroendocrine activity normalizes. 7. Stage of exhaustion. 8. Panic, crisis, exhaustion. 9. Rest and recovery or death.
Inflammatory response:
a local response to injury or infection
Mind-body interaction:
The body's response to threats as if they are real; preparation for resistance or flight.
General Adaptation Syndrome
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

a model that describes how a stressor triggers the physiologic response, developed by Selye and Fortier (1950)
Alarm Reaction
Alarm Reaction

first reaction of the GAS which alerts the body's defenses in two stages: shock (fight or flight) and countershock (body reverts to baseline)
Resistance
second reaction of the GAS in which the body's adaptation to the stressor takes place; stabilitation, normalized hormone levels, parasympathetic activity, adaptation
Exhaustion
Exhaustion

third and last stage of GAS in which all ways of being able to cope are exhausted; increased physiological response, decreased energy, decreased adaptation, deat