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Neurology, Psychology, Anesthesiology, and Vascular Terminology

Medical Terminology 1, Unit 8
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neur/o
nerve or neuron
angi/o
vessel
my/o
muscle
ateri/o
artery
thromb/o
blood clot
phleb/o
vein
hem/o or hemat/o
blood
ather/o
fatty or porridgelike
ven/i
vein
blast/o
germ or embryonic cell; gives rise to something else
spasm/o
involuntary contraction
scler/o
hard
lys/o
break down, destruction
fibr/o
fibrous, fiber
-rrhexis
rupture
-ectasia
dilation or stretching
nervous
adjective meaning pertaining to nerves
neurology
study of the nervous system
neurosurgeon
highly skilled physician specially trained to perform surgery on structures of the nervous system
neuroblast
germ cell from which a nerve cell develops
myoblast
an embryonic germ cell from which a muscle cell develops
angioblast
germ cell from which vessels develop
myospasm
spasme of a muscle
neurospasm
spasm of a nerve
angiospasm
spasm of a vessel
arteriospasm
arterial spasm
gastrospasm
gastric spasm-stomach
gastromalacia
softening of the stomach walls
angiopathy
any disease of the vessels
myopathy
any disease of the muscle
neuropathy
any disease of the nerves
angiosclerosis
condition of hardening of a vessel
neurosclerosis
condition of hardening of the nerve tissue
myosclerosis
hardening of the muscle tissue
neurologist
specialist who studies nervous system disorders
neuritis
inflammation of a nerve
neuroma
nerve tumor
myoma
muscle tumor
angioma
vessel tumor
fibroma
fibrous tumor
neurolysis
destruction of nerve tissue
myolysis
destruction of muscle tissue
angiolysis
destruction or breaking down vessels
neuralgia
pain along the course of nerve
neuroarthropathy
disease of nerves and joints
neuroplasty
surgical repair of nerves
afferent
inflowing, toward a center, to bring to
efferent
outlfowing, away from a center, to carry away
affect
to have influence upon, ie: to change mood, thoughts or actions
effect
the result of consequence of an action
accept
include, bring toward, embrace
except
exclude, keep away, reject
affusion
pouring upon, ie: pouring of water upon the body for therapeutic purposes
effusion
the escaping of fluid or blood from its normal palce, ie: blood from vessels into the lungs or a joint cavity
neurotripsy
surgical crusing of a nerve
-tripsy
Greek word, tripsis, meaning rubbing or massage
lithotripsy
surgical crushing of stones
ultrasonic lithrotripsy
therapeutic ultrasound that is used to fragment stones
myel
spinal cord or bone marrow
myelitis
inflammation of the spinal cord or bone marrow
myeloblast
bone marrow germ cell
myelocytic
pertaining to myelocytes (bone marrow or spinal cord cell)
myelocele
herniation of the spinal cord
-plasia
condition of growth or development
dysplasia
poor or defective development
hyperplasia
overgrowth, too much growth
aplasia
lack of development, failure of an organ to develop properly
myelodysplasia
defective (poor or bad) formation of the spinal cord
hyperplasia
overgrowth or too many cells
hypoplasia
underdevelopment or not enough cells
chondrodysplasia
defective formation of cartilage
osteochondrodysplasia
defective formation of the bone and cartilage
neuromyelitis
inflammation of nerves and spinal cord
psych/o
mind
psychology
study of the mind, mental processes, and human behavior
psychoanalysis
a method of analyzing psychic phenomena and treating mental and emotional disorders that is based on the concepts and theories of Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of free association and dream analysis, and that involves treatment sessions during which the patient is encouraged to talk freely about personal experiences and especially about early childhood and dreams
psychosomatic
Relating to both the mind and the body or to the mind-body interrelationships
psychosexual
mental disorder related to sexual function
psychiatrist
physician who specializes in study and deals with mental and neurotic disorders
psychiatry
treatment of mental disorders
psychology
science of that studies human behavior
psychotherapy
process of healing mental disorders using words, art, drama, or movement to express feelings
psychosis
a severe mental condtion marked by loss of contact with reality and having delusions or hallucinations
psychogenesis
formation of mental characteristics
psychoneurosis
emotional and behavioral disorder, is manifested by anxiety, phobias, and defense mechanisms
OCD
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
psychotropic
medications may be used to alter mind, emotions or behavior
psychomotor
mental processes that cause movement
psychoneuroses
obsessive-compulsive reaction, conversion reaction and phobias
motor neuron
neuron that innervates a muscle causes movement
pharmac/o
pharmacy
psychopharmacology
study of drugs that act on the mind and emotions
neuropharmacology
study of drugs that affect the nervous system
pharmacology
study of prescription and nonprescription medications
narcotic
drug that produces sleep

ie: Opium, Codeine, Morphine
narc/o
stuporous sleep
Antidepressant
Prozac
tranquilizers
Thorazine
neuroleptics, sedatives and anticonvulsants
Dilantin
narcosis
condition induced by narcotics
epilepsy
seizures

ie: petit mal (French: small bad)
grand mal (French: large bad)
narcolepsy
seizure of attacks of sleep/ sleep disorder

ie: Cerebroma, cerebral arteriosclerosis, and paresis
-lepsy
seizure
lipolysis
destruction (breakdown) of fat
cytolysis
destruction (breakdown) of cells
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
arteriofibrosis
fibrous condition of the arteries
arteriomalacia
softening of the arteries
atherosclerosis
hardening of the blood vessels caused by fatty or porridgelike substance
myocardial infarction
heart attack
cerebral infarction
stroke- artery supplying the cerebrum is closed or blocked
ischemia
A blood defienciency in an organ or tissue caused by a constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels
necrosis
A pathalogical process caused by the progressive degradative action of enzymes that is generally associated with severe cellular trauma. It is characterized by mitochondrial swelling, nuclear flocculation, uncontrolled cell lysis, and ultimately CELL DEATH.
atherectomy
removal of an fatty tumor
atheroma
fatty tumor from a fatty streak
endarterectomy
removal of an atheroma. This procedure is most commonly performed on the carotid artery
angina pectoris
symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARIDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION
hemangioblast
embryonic blood vessel
hemangioma
benign tumor of blood vessel
hemarthrosis
condition of blood in a joint
hematolysis
destruction of blood cells
hematophobia
abnormal fear of blood
hematology
study of blood
hematologist
one who specializes in the science of blood
hemoglobin (hgb) blood lab test
measured to detect anemia. The red protein substance in erythrocytes that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
hematocrit (hct) blood test
measures the percent of formed elements(blood cells) compared to the total volume of blood
thromboangiitis
inflammation of a vessel with formation of a blood clot
thrombectomy
removal of a blood clot
lymph/o
lymphatic tissue
thrombolymphangitis
inflammation of a lymph vessel with formation of a blood clot
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein with thrombus formation
thrombosis
condition of forming a thrombus (blood clot)
thrombocyte
cell that aids clotting
thromboid
resembling a thrombus (blood clot)
thrombogenic
pertaining to the formation of a thrombus (blood clot)
thrombolysis
destruction of a thrombus (blood clot)
thrombocytopenia
lack of cells that aid clotting (platelets)
occlusion
to close or block
infarct
An obstruction or embolus in one of the blood vessels
myocardial
heart muscle
embolus
thrombus or piece of a moving thrombus may move throught blood vessels to another part of the body
MI
myocardial infarction
CVA
cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
arteries
are vessels that carry blood away from the heart
veins
are vessels that carry blood back to the heart
phlebectomy
removal of a vein
phlebosclerosis
hardening of the veins
phlebopexy
surgical fixation of a vein
phlebectasia
venous dilatation (stretching)
arteriectasia
arterial dilatation
angiectasia
vessel dilatation
phleboplasty
surgical repair of a vein
phlebotomy
incision into a vein or venipuncture
venipuncture
obtaining a venous blood sample
venous
blood flow through the veins back to the heart
intravenous injection
administering medication within a vein
hysterorrhexis
rupture of the uterus
cystorrhexis
rupture of the bladder
enterorrhexis
rupture of the small intestine
-rrhea
discharge or flow
-rrhagia
hemorrhage
-rrhaphy
suture or stitch
cardiorrhexis
rupture of the heart
angiorrhexis
rupture of a vessel
arteriorrhexis
rupture of an artery
phleborrhexis
ruptureof a vein
angioplasty
repair of a vessel
angiography
process of obtaining an x-ray of a vessel
angioscopy
process of using a looking device to examine a vessel
angiogram
image of a vessel
phlebography or venography
process of obtaining an x-ray of a vein
metrorrhexis or hysterorrhexis
rupture of the tissues of the uterus
hepatorrhexis
rupture of the liver
hepatorrhaphy
suturing or stitching for the liver (wound)
hepatorrhea
excessive discharge of bile from the liver
cystorrhexis
rupture of the bladder
systorrhagia
hemorrhage from the bladder
cystorrhea
discharge from the bladder
cystorrhaphy
suturing or stitching of the bladder
esthesiometer
An instrument to measure the degree of sensation, by determining at how short a distance two impressions upon the skin can be distinguished, and thus to determine whether the condition of tactile sensibility is normal or altered
anesthesia
without lack of sensation, often induced to allow surgery or other painful procedures
anesthesiology
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia
anesthetist
A medical specialist who administers an anesthetic to a patient before the patient is treated
Esthesia
feeling or sensation
anesthesiologist
physician specialist in anesthesia
Novacaine
used to remove sensation in a specific area called a local anesthetic
dysesthesia
Subjective cutaneous sensations that are experienced spontaneuosly in the absence of stimulation
IE: cold, warmth, tingling, pressure
hypoesthesia
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation
Algesia or hyperesthesia
oversensitivty to pain
algesimeter
instrument used to measure pain
algesic
pertaining to pain
analgesia
condtion without pain
paralgesia paralgia
abnormal pain
paraplegia
paralysis of the lower body
para-
Greek prefix means beside, beyond, near, abnormal
paranephritis
inflammation near the kidney
parahepatitis
inflammation near the liver
paramedic
works beside a physician assisting in rescue operation. EMT with advanced training.
parasalpingitis
inflammation near the fallopian tubes
paraosteoarthropathy
disease near a bone and joint
paralysis
loss of muscle fuction and sensation
paraplegia
paralysis of the lower body
paranoid
delustions of persecution
parasympathetic
part of the autonomic nervous system
paresthesia
abnormal touch sensation
Paroxysmos
Greek word meaning irritation
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
sudden onset of shortness of breath at night
kinesi/o
movement
rhabd/o
rod shaped
lip/o
fat
myogram
the recording or picture of the muscle
myograph
the instrument to recording the muscle
myography
the process of recording the muscle
Myasthenia gravis
condition of the muscle
myofibroma
fibrous muscle tumor
leiomyoma
uteri or fibroid tumor of the uterine muscle or myometrium
myometrium
uterine muscle
rhabdomyo
striated-rod shaped (skeletal, voluntary) covers skeleton

Function: skeletal movement
EX: rhabdomyosarcoma
leiomyo
smooth muscle (visceral, involuntary) organs, vessels
FUNCTION: movement of liquids, gases and solids
EX: leiomyofibroma
myocardio
cardiac- heart
FUNCTION- maintains heartbeat
EX: myocardiopathy
myoid
resembling muscle
myolipoma
muscle tumor containing fatty elements
myopathy
muscle disease
cardiomyopathy or myocardiopathy
heart muscle disease
myoblast
immature muscle cell
rhabdomyoblast
abnormal rod-shaped muscle stem cell that may lead to the development of sarcoma
rhabdomyoma
benign tumor derived from striated muscle
rhabdomyosarcoma
a malignant solid tumor arising from msenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle
Electromyography
use both surface and needle electrodes for recording muscle activity
electroneuromyography
uses both surface and needle electrodes for recording nerve and muscle function
bradykinesia
slowness of movement
kinesialgia
pain of movement or movement pain
kinesiology
study of muscular body movement
AANA
American Association of Nurse Anesthetists
AART
American Association of Rehabilitation Therapy
ACPMR
American Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ADL
activities of daily living
AOD
arterial occlusive disease
ANS
autonomic nervous system
APTA
American Physical Therapy Association
AS
arterosclerosis
ASCVD
arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease
ASHD
arteriosclerotic heart disease
C1-C8
cervical spinal nerve pairs
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CAD
coronary artery disease
CNS
central nervous system
CRNA
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist
C-section
cesarean section
EMG
electromyogram
HA
headache, hearing aid
HDL
high-density lipoproteins
IV
intravenous
L1-L5
lumbar spinal nerve pairs
MD
muscular dystrophy, medical doctor
MFT
muscle function test
MS
multiple sclerosis, morphine sulfate
NVS
neurologic vital signs
PND
parosysmal nocturnal dyspnea, postnasal drip
PNS
peripheral nervous system
pro time, pt
prothrombin time
PT
physical therapist (therapy)
RPh
Registered Pharmacist
ROM
range of motion
S1-S5
sacral spinal nerve pairs
SOB
shortness of breath
T1-T12 (D1-D12)
thoracic spinal nerve pairs (dyspnea), same as dorsal spinal nerve pairs
TENS
transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation