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Chapter 11 - 13 Review questions
Terms in this set (39)
The Great Compromise successfully resolved differences between ________.
large and small states
While each state has two senators, members of the House are apportioned ________.
according to the state's population
The process of redistricting can present problems for congressional representation because ________.
districts are often drawn to benefit partisan groups
Which of the following is an implied power of Congress?
the power to regulate the sale of tobacco in the states
Briefly explain the benefits and drawbacks of a bicameral system.
A primary benefit of a bicameral system is the way it demands careful consideration and deliberate action on the part of the legislators. A primary drawback is that it is tougher overall to pass legislation and makes it extremely difficult to push through large-scale reforms.
What are some examples of the enumerated powers granted to Congress in the Constitution?
.Some examples of the enumerated powers granted to Congress in the Constitution are...
- Levy Taxes
- Regulate Commerce
- Establish a post office
- Declare War
Why does a strong presidency necessarily sap power from Congress?
The executive and legislative branches complement and check each other. The purpose of dividing their roles is to prevent either from becoming too powerful. As a result, when one branch assumes more power, it necessarily assumes that power from the other branch.
Senate races tend to inspire ________.
broad discussion of policy issues
The saying "All politics is local" roughly means ________.
the local constituents tend to care about things that affect them
What does Campbell's surge-and-decline theory suggest about the outcome of midterm elections?
Campbell's sure-and-decline theory suggests that the president's party will lose seats during the midterm election. During the presidential election, he suggests that there is a surge in political stimulation, which brings out voters who are not interested in politics. These voters will favor the party holding the presidency. However, during midterm elections, it is the opposite. The midterm election has a smaller turnout because those uninterested voters will not vote. So that will give an advantage to the party not holding the presidency.
Explain the factors that make it difficult to oust incumbents.
Incumbents chase off would-be challengers because they are able to raise more money given that people want to back a winner and that voters know incumbents by name because they won the office in a previous election. The challengers who do take on incumbents typically lose soundly for the same reasons.
A congressperson who pursued a strict delegate model of representation would seek to ________.
legislate in the way he or she believed constituents wanted, regardless of the anticipated outcome
The increasing value constituents have placed on descriptive representation in Congress has had the effect of ________.
increasing the number of minority members in Congress
How has the growing interpretation of earmarks and other budget allocations as corruption influenced the way congresspersons work?
.Earmarks allows both sides to benefit from the transaction, congress gets the funding and the patrons get the projects they want. Congresspersons therefore work according to the patrons' wishes as long is it funds specific projects the congresspersons are interested in.
What does polling data suggest about the events that trigger exceptionally high congressional approval ratings?
The peaks of congressional approval ratings have each occurred when the United States began military involvements overseas. This suggests that the start of a foreign war is one of the few things that triggers a positive reevaluation of Congress.
House leaders are more powerful than Senate leaders because of ________.
the majoritarian nature of the House—a majority can run it like a cartel
A select committee is different from a standing committee because ________.
a select committee is convened for a specific and temporary purpose, while a standing committee is permanent
Explain how the committees demonstrate a division of labor in Congress based on specialization.
Committees are designed so that they can individually deal with issues therefore allowing for a more efficient process.
Stopping a filibuster requires that ________.
the chamber votes for cloture
Saying a bill is being marked up is just another way to say it is being ________.
The key means of advancing modern legislation is now ________.
the budget process
Briefly explain the difference between the classic model of legislating and the modern process.
The classic model of legislating was more straightforward and to the point. While there were debates in the classic model it was more working together to accomplish a task, unlike today's model of legislation that is full of filibusters and irrelevant arguments.
Classic Legislative Process
1- bills are introduced and sent to the appropriate committee
2- hearings are held and the bill is debated and ultimately sent to the floor of the chamber
3- the bill is debated and amended until passed or voted down
4- if passed, it moves to the second chamber where the debating and amending begins anew.
5- Eventually, the two chambers meet in a joint committee to reconcile what are now two different bills
Modern Legislative Process
1- large pieces of legislation covering many different items are passed through the budgeting process
2- this method has had the effect of further empowering the leadership, to the detriment of the committees
3- the modern legislative process has also been affected by the increasing number of filibuster threats in the Senate and the use of cloture to forestall them.
Many at the Continental Congress were skeptical of allowing presidents to be directly elected by the legislature because ________.
they feared the opportunities created for corruption
Which of the following is a way George Washington expanded the power of the presidency?
He appointed the heads of various federal departments as his own advisors.
How did presidents who served in the decades directly after Washington expand the powers of the presidency?
John Adams expanded the war powers by waging undeclared war, Thomas Jefferson negotiated the purchase of Louisiana from France, and James Monroe took direct control of foreign policymaking when he issued the Monroe Doctrine.
What factors contributed to the growth of presidential power in the twentieth century?
As the nation's economy grew, the government needed to assume a larger regulatory role. As the world shrank, the federal government needed to expand its diplomatic presence.
How did the election of 1824 change the way presidents were selected?
The selection of the candidate with fewer electoral votes triggered the rise of party control over nominations.
Which of the following is an unintended consequence of the rise of the primary and caucus system?
Sometimes candidates unpopular with the party leadership reach the top.
What problems exist with the Electoral College?
There are many problems with the Electoral College. First, small states are over-represented in the Electoral College. Second, the state by state set-up of the college, in the modern era, leads to states that are safe wins for one party, leaving a handful of states that get all the attention. Finally, its outcomes can differ from the outcome of actual citizen voting (also known as the national popular vote.
The people who make up the modern president's cabinet are the heads of the major federal departments and ________.
must be confirmed by the Senate
A very challenging job for new presidents is to ______.
nominate and gain confirmation for their cabinet and hundreds of other officials
How do presidents work to fulfill their campaign promises once in office?
They try to work around divided govt (when one or more houses of the legislature are controlled by
the party in opposition to the executive.)
President Theodore Roosevelt's concept of the bully pulpit was the office's ________.
premier position to pressure through public appeal
In what ways have first ladies expanded the role of their office over the twentieth century?
First ladies have gone public with issues that matter to the and have even pushed for reform
How were presidents in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries likely to reach the public? Were these methods effective?
Presidents of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries might make speeches or publish letters in newspapers across the country. These methods may have been effective in their day, but not in comparison to the ability of modern presidents with television, radio, and the Internet at their disposal.
The passage of the Tenure of Office Act of 1867 was just one instance in a long line of ________.
struggles for power between the president and the Congress
Which of the following is an example of an executive agreement?
The president signs legally binding nuclear arms terms with Iran without seeking congressional approval.
How have the methods presidents use to negotiate with their party and the opposition changed over time?
The President can surpass conflict with executive orders and agreements.
What strategies can presidents employ to win people over to their way of thinking?
Presidents can use road trips across the country, major speeches, and rewards to people in their camp. Historically, however, these techniques have only rarely been successful. What works best is for a president find a popular position to get out in front of.
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