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What are endospores?

Unique to bacteria, endospores are highly durable, dehydrated cells with thick walls and additional layers, formed internal to the bacterial cell membrane.

What kind of environments can endospores survive in?

1. Extreme heat
2. Lack of water
3. Many toxic chemicals
4. Radiation

Define Sporulation Process?

A process of endospore formation that consists of 6 stages.

First Stage of Sporulation?

1. The DNA is replicated.
2. The spore septum begins to isolate the newly replicated DNA and small portion of the cytoplasm.

Fifth Stage of Sporulation?

1. A thick spore coat forms around the outside membrane, making the endospores resistant to many harsh chemicals.
2.The new spore loses its water and becomes higly dehydraed to the point that all that remains in the spore is:
*Small amounts of RNA
*Few important molecules

Second Stage of Sporulation?

The plasma membrane starts to surround the replicated DNA and cytoplasm.

Third Stage of Sporulation?

The spore septum surrounds the isolated portion, forming a forspore.

Fourth Stage of Sporulation?

A peptidoglycan layer forms between the two membranes.

Sixth Stage of Sporulation?

1. The endospore is released from the cell and can remain dormant for thousands of years.
2.Germination (The process where the endospores returns to its vegetative state) is triggered by physical or chemical damage to the endospore's coat.
3. The endospore's enzymes break down the extra layers.
4. Water and nutrients are reintroduced.
5. Metabolism resumes.

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