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microbio ch 2
Terms in this set (50)
The negatively charged component of the atom is the
In addition to investigations with bacteria that led to Pasteur being considered the Father of Microbiology, he also
found that some molecules can exist as stereoisomers AND separated organic acids using a microscope.
Which of the following are found in RNA but not in DNA?
Ribose AND uracil
What determines the chemical and physical properties of an atom of an element?
L-amino acids occur in proteins and are designated
natural AND left handed.
is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
The mass number of an atom is equal to
neutrons and protons
may need help from chaperones to assume the correct shape.
Enzymes are required to break which of the following bonds?
Adenosine triphosphate contains
adenosine, ribose, and three phosphates.
Amino acids in proteins are linked to one another by peptide bonds between the
carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.Correct
You are a biochemist working on a molecule found in a recently discovered bacterium. You determine that the molecule is composed of a chain of similar subunits and can thus conclude that the molecule is unlikely to be a
Which shows the incorrect complementary base pairing?
If electrons are shared unequally, a(n) ______ bond is formed.
Which statement is true of nucleotides?
They are the building blocks of DNA.
The subunits (building blocks) of proteins are
The most important molecule(s) in the world is (are)
Sharing of electrons between 2 atoms forms a(n)
The carbohydrate(s) found in nucleic acids is (are)
ribose OR deoxyribose.
may interconvert between ring and linear structures.
The components of fats are fatty acids and
Which of the following statements about enzymes is FALSE?
Enzymes increase the temperature of a reaction.
Select the FALSE statement regarding carbohydrates.
Cholesterol and ergosterol are examples of carbohydrates.
How many different amino acids are there to choose from when assembling a protein?
You are working in a laboratory, making media for growing bacteria. The recipe you are following calls for the addition of TRIS buffer. You can't find any TRIS in the lab, so you decide to leave it out of the medium. Select the FALSE statement regarding your decision.
The medium will likely not be useable, because bacteria live within a narrow pH range, near pH 14.
If the side chains of amino acids contain carboxyl (-COOH) groups, they
contribute a negative charge to the amino acid at pH 10 AND are considered acidic amino acids.
If electrons are gained or lost in the formation of a bond, the bond is a(n) ______ bond.
the end of the nucleic acid chain to which more nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis is always the
3 prime end
What type of bond holds one strand of DNA to the complementary strand of DNA?
contain the same number of atoms/elements, but in different arrangements AND are exemplified by glucose and galactose.
The primary structure in a protein refers to
the sequence of amino acids.
The N terminal in a protein
is the end characterized by a free amino group.
Atoms that gain electrons become
Amino acids that contain many methyl (-CH3) groups
Which of these bonds are weak individually but are much stronger as a group?
Ionic AND hydrogen
Charged atoms are called
is a polar molecule.
is referred to as a universal solvent.
makes up over 70% of an organism.
is often a product or reactant in chemical reactions.
Microorganisms use hydrogen bonds to attach themselves to the surfaces that they live on. Many of them lose hold of the surface because of the weak nature of these bonds and end up dying or being washed away. Why don't microbes just use covalent bonds instead?
Covalent bonds typically require enzymes to form/break, whereas hydrogen bonds don't. If covalent bonds were used, it would require much more energy and molecules to be contributed from the cell. Hydrogen bonds don't have these requirements.
Dehydration reactions are involved in
the formation of polypeptides AND the formation of polysaccharides.
Which is NOT true of lipids?
They are a homogeneous group of molecules.
D-amino acids are associated with
bacterial cell walls.
The sugars found in nucleic acids contain
5 carbon atoms.
Select the FALSE statement regarding protein denaturation.
Denaturation cannot be reversed.
In general, when saturated fats are compared to unsaturated fats (assuming the same number of carbon atoms in the molecule),
unsaturated fats have a lower melting temperature.
Please identify the correct definition.
Electrolytes are salts that conduct electricity when they are dissolved in water.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
Carboxyl - CH3Correct
are found in the area outside the nucleus known as the cloud.
are involved in almost every important function performed by a cell AND comprise more than 50% of the dry weight of a cell.
The purines of DNA are
adenine and guanine.
The characteristic common to all lipids is their
solubility in organic solvents AND hydrophobic nature.
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