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Vocab from: Chapter 2


A period lasting from 2 million years ago to 10,000 B.C.E. with the appearance of Homo habilis. Hominids fashioned tools from stone, wood, and bone by knocking and chipping them from the core.

Old Stone Age

see Paleolithic


A period beginning about 10,000 to 8,000 B.C.E. where stone tools were made by chipping, grinding and polishing, making them stronger and capable of cutting more deeply.

New Stone Age

see Neolithic


Groups of people who rely on a combined living of hunting game and gathering root vegetables, nuts and seeds. During the Paleolithic Era, groups of hunter-gatherers migrated widely, to all but the most remote parts of the globe. They had well-defined territories and settled campsites. Also, the hunter-gatherers learned to control fire and knew the habits of animals + relied on plants as an essential part of their diet. Their culture was very vast.


The earliest of the people who began crossing from Asia (Siberia) to North America (Alaska).


The most recent of the people who began crossing from Asia (Siberia) to North America (Alaska).


American Indians, who descended from Amurians and Mongoloids.


Behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, and institutions of people like hunter-gatherers.


A cave in France where hunter-gatherer cave painting have been drawn. These are most likely to appease the animal spirits or to persuade the "Earth Mother" to the bountiful.


The agricultural practice of producing enough food for subsistence only. It is carried out with hand tools only.


Seed selection and sowing of plants, which seems to have developed independently in many parts of the world.


A site in present-day Iraq where agriculture developed. Rains supported sustained agriculture in Jarmo.


A system that allowed farmers to grow grain in places where it did not grow naturally.


A technique to cut the bark around trees to kill them, so the ashes can improve fertility.

Huang He

(a.k.a. Yellow River) A river in China in which farmers farmed millet alongside ca.7000 B.C.E.

Maize (Corn)

A vegetable which was cultivated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico about 45000 - 4700 years ago as part of the Agricultural Revolution.

Root Crops

Crops such as manioc, taro, cassava, and yams that women began to cultivate ca. 5000 B.C.E.

Rice Paddy Farming

A type of farming developed in the monsoon areas of the world in which farmers planted rice seedling in standing water. It developed on the heels of already known methods.


The domestication of animals.

Hallan Cemi

A site in southeastern Turkey dating back 10,000 years where discoveries prove that the pig was the first domesticated animal that was eaten.


An early community in Iraq where agriculture flourished.


An early community in Jordan where agriculture flourished.

Catal Huyuk

An early community in Turkey where agriculture flourished.

Ban Po

An early community in China where agriculture flourished.


An early community in Mexico where agriculture flourished.

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