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Management: Chapter #17
Terms in this set (49)
What is motivation?
Motivation is the process by which a person's efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal.
What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory?
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is that physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs form a sort of hierarchy.
What are the needs of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory?
The needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory are physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
What are physiological needs?
Physiological needs are a person's needs for food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical needs.
What are safety needs?
Safety needs are a person's needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
What are social needs?
Social needs are a person's needs for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
What are esteem needs?
Esteem needs are a person's needs for internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
What are self-actualization needs?
Self-actualization needs are a person's needs to become what he or she is capable of becoming.
What is McGregor's Theory X?
McGregor's Theory X is the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
What is McGregor's Theory Y?
McGregor's Theory Y is the assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
What is Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory?
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is the motivation theory that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction.
What is another name for Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory?
Another name for Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is the Motivation-Hygiene Theory.
What are hygiene factors?
Hygiene factors are factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction, but don't motivate.
What are motivators?
Motivators are factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation.
What is McClelland's Three-Needs Theory?
McClellan's Three-Needs Theory is the motivation theory that says three acquired (not innate) needs - achievement, power, and affiliation - are major motives in work.
What is the need for achievement (nAch)?
The need for achievement (nAch) is the drive to succeed and excel in relation to a set of standards.
What is the need for power (nPow)?
The need for power (nPow) is the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
What is the need for affiliation (nAff)?
The need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
What is Wyeth's Goal-Setting Theory?
Wyeth's Goal-Setting Theory is the proposition that specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals.
What is self-efficacy?
Self-efficacy is an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
What is the reinforcement theory?
The reinforcement theory is the theory that behavior is a function of its consequences.
What are reinforcers?
Reinforcers are consequences immediately following a behavior, which increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
What is job design?
Job design is the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs.
What is job scope?
Job scope is the number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which those tasks are repeated.
What is job enlargement?
Job enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job by increasing job scope.
What is job enrichment?
Job enrichment is the vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities.
What is job depth?
Job depth is the degree of control employees have over their work.
What is the job characteristics model (JCM)?
The job characteristics model (JCM) is a framework for analyzing and designing jobs that identifies five primary core job dimensions, their interrelationships, and their impact on outcomes.
What are the five primary core job dimensions of the job characteristics model (JCM)?
The five primary core job dimensions of the job characteristics model (JCM) are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.
What is skill variety?
Skill variety is the degree to which a job requires a variety of activities so that an employee can use an umber of different skills and talents.
What is task identity?
Task identity is the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
What is task significance?
Task significance is the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
What is autonomy?
Autonomy is the degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.
What is feedback?
Feedback is the degree to which carrying out work activities required by a job results in the individual's obtaining direct and clear information about his or her performance effectiveness.
What is the rational perspective of work design?
The rational perspective of work design is an approach to job design that focuses on how people's tasks and jobs are increasingly based on social relationships.
What is the proactive perspective of work design?
The proactive perspective of work design is an approach to job design in which employees take the initiative to change how their work is performed.
What are high-involvement work practices?
High-Involvement work practices are work practices designed to elicit greater input or involvement from workers.
What is Adam's equity theory?
Adam's equity theory is the theory that an employee compares his or her job's input-outcomes ration with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity.
What are referents?
Referents are the persons, systems, or selves against which individuals compare themselves to assess equity.
What is distributive justice?
Distributive justice is perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
What is procedural justice?
Procedural justice is perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.
What is Vroom's expectancy theory?
Vroom's expectancy theory is the theory that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
What are the three variables/relationships of Vroom's expectancy theory?
The three variables/relationships of Vroom's expectancy theory is expectancy/effort-performance linkage, instrumentality/performance-reward linkage, and valence/attractiveness of reward.
What is expectancy/effort-performance linkage?
Expectancy/effort-performance linkage is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to a certain level of performance.
What is instrumentality/performance-reward linkage?
Instrumentality/performance-reward linkage is the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level is instrumental in attaining the desired outcome.
What is valence/attractiveness of reward?
Valence/attractiveness of reward is the importance an individual places on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieve on the job. Valence considers both the goals and needs of the individual.
What is open-book management?
Open-book management is a motivational approach in which an organization's financial statements (the "books") are shared with all employees.
What are employee-recognition programs?
Employee-recognition programs are personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done.
What are pay-for-performance programs?
Pay-for-performance programs are variable compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure.
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