VL#5 and textbook terms

45% of calories should come form carbohydrates is recommended for people that are?
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Terms in this set (60)
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsCarcinogen formed when foods are cooked over direct flameAcrylamideA carcinogen formed when certain starches are fried or baked at high temps.The 3 stages of carcinogenesis1. Initiation 2. Promotion 3. ProgressionResveratrola phytochemical of grapes under study for potential health benefits.lutein and zeaxanthinspinach, avocado, honeydew, collard and turnip greensQuercetinKaleWays to reduce cancer risk1) Maintain healthful weight throughout life 2) Get regular exercise 3) Go easy on alcohol 4) Limit your consumption of cured, charred, and barbecued meat.Atherosclerosis: a type of artery disease characterized by ___________ on the inner walls of the arteriesplaquesPlaque: an accumulation of ________ deposits, smooth muscle cells, and fibrous c.t. that develops in the artery walls in atherosclerosis.fattyFatty streaks: accumulations of _______________ and other lipids along the walls of the arteries.cholesterolCoronary heart disease (CHD): the damage that occurs when the blood vessels carrying blood to the heart (the coronary arteries) become __________ and occluded.narrowCardiovascular disease (CVD): diseases of the heart and blood vessels throughout the body. Atherosclerosis is the main cause of CVD. When the arteries that carry blood to the heart muscle become ___________, the heart suffers damage known as CHD.blockedThrombosis: the formation of a thrombus or a __________ clot, that may obstruct a blood vessel, causing gradual tissue death.bloodEmbolism: the obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus, or traveling ________, causing sudden tissue death.clotC-reactive protein (CRP): a protein released during the acute phase of infection or inflammation that enhances ___________- by promoting phagocytosis and activating platelets. Its presence may be used to assess a person's risk of an impending heart attack or stroke.immunityLipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 or Lp-PLA 2: A lipoprotein-bound enzyme that generates potent pro-inflammatory and proatherogenic products such as oxidized free fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine. Lp-PLA (2) is a specific marker of __________ inflammation.plaquePlatelets: tiny, disc-shaped bodies in the ____________, important in blood clot formation.bloodAtherogenic: able to __________ or promote atherosclerosis.initiateMetabolic syndrome: a combination of risk factors-insulin resistance, high blood pressure, ____________ blood lipids, and abdominal obesity that greatly increase a person's risk of developing coronary heart disease; also called syndrome X.abnormalInsulin resistance: the condition in which a normal amount of insulin produces a subnormal effect in muscle, adipose, and liver cells, resulting in an ____________ fasting glucose; a metabolic consequence of obesity that precedes type 2 diabetes.elevatedCarcinogenesis: the processes of __________ developmentcancerTumor: an abnormal tissue mass with no ____________- function also called a neoplasm.physiologicalmetastasize: the spread of ___________ from one part of the body to another.cancerInitiators: factors that cause _______________that give rise to cancer, such as radiation and carcinogens.mutationsPromoters: factors that favor the _________________ of cancers once they have begun.developmentAntipromoters: factors that __________ the development of cancer.opposecruciferous vegetables: vegetables of the ____________ family, including cauliflower, broccoli, and brussel sprouts.cabbagePhytocehmicals: non-nutrient compounds found in __________. Some phytochemicals have biological activity in the body.plantsFunctional foods: foods that have a potentially _____________ effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels.beneficialFlaxseeds: the small brown _________ of the flax plant; valued in nutrition as a source of fiber, lignans, and omega 3 fatty acids.seedsLycopene: a pigment responsible for the ______ color of tomatoes and other red-hued veggies; a photochemical that may act as an antioxidant in the body.redCarotenoids: pigments commonly found in plants and animals, some of which have vitamin _____ activity. The carotenoid with the greatest vitamin A activity is beta-carotene.AFlavonoids: _________ pigments in foods; phytochemicals that may exert physiological effects on the body.yellowLignans: phytochemicals present in __________ that are converted to phytosterols by intestinal bacteria and are under study as possible anticancer agents.flaxseedLutein: a plant pigment of yellow hue; a phytochemical believed to play roles in ________ functioning and health.eyePhytoestrogens: phytochemicals structurally similar to human ____________ that weakly mimic or modulate estrogens action in the body.estrogenPlant sterols: phytochemicals that have structural similarities to cholesterol and lower blood cholesterol by interfering with cholesterol ______________.absorptionHyperglycemia: elevated blood ____________ concentration.glucoseFasting plasma glucose: a test that measures plasma glucose after a person has __________ (no food or kcaloric beverages) for at least 8 hours.fastedA1C: a test that measures the percentage of _____________ that has glucose attached, which helps diagnose diabetes and evaluate long-term glycemic control.hemoglobinAutoimmune disorder: a condition in which the body develops antibodies to its own proteins and then proceeds to destroy cells containing these proteins. In type 1 diabetes, the body develops antibodies to its insulin and destroys the pancreatic cells that produce the insulin, creating an insulin ___________.deficiencyDiabetes: a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose resulting from insufficient insulin, ineffective insulin, or both; the complete medical term is diabetes mellitus. When blood glucose levels are higher than normal but below the diagnosis of diabetes, the condition is called ____________.prediabetesPrediabetes: condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but below the diagnosis of diabetes; formerly called impaired glucose tolerance prediabetes is considered a major risk factor for future diabetes and ________________ diseases.cardiovascularType 1 diabetes: the less common type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic ________ cells.betaType 2 diabetes: the more common type of diabetes in which the cells fail to respond to insulin. Type 2 diabetes usually accompanies __________ and results from insulin resistance coupled with insufficient insulin secretion.obesityMicroangiopathies: disorders of the _________ blood vessels.smallPeople with type 1 diabetes coordinate ________, __________, and _____________ to help control their blood glucose.diet, insulin, and physical activityPeople with type 2 diabetes benefit from a ________ and ___________ that controls glucose and promotes weight loss.diet and physical activityInflammation: an immunological response to cellular injury characterized by an increase in __________ blood cells.whiteEctopic fat: excess fat in locations other than _____________ tissue.adipose