Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
URR ABD Questions
Terms in this set (303)
What correctly describes penile cancer?
it is associated with inguinal lymphadenopathy
Patient presents with a history of high fever, HTN, nausea and vomiting. Lab results indicate the presence of WBC, pus, and bacteria in the urine. A small, shrunken, misshapen left kidney and a normal right kidney are documented on the ultrasound exam. What are these findings most suggestive of?
Tumor invasion into the urinary bladder most commonly caused by _______ in females and by ________ in males.
uterine cancer, prostate cancer
A 55 y.o. female presents with mild flank pain. The right kidney measures 13 cm with 3 cysts. The left kidney measures 13.5 cm with 2 cysts. What is the most likely explanation?
What is most commonly found in the pancreatic body or tail and secretes hormones?
islet cell tumors
Which type of pancreatic mass has a strong risk of malignant conversion?
The SMA is identified to the right of the SMV in a patient with acute abdomen symptoms. What should you suspect?
A patient presents for a liver ultrasound due to a history of cirrhosis. The prior US report indicates the presence of a dilated umbilical vein. What is the proper probe position and location needed to demonstrate the umbilical vein as seen in the image?
sagittal, just to the left of the midline
What is the most common primary cancer to metastasize to the liver?
Adrenal gland hemorrhage
in adults is usually related to trauma or hematologic disorders, such as thrombocytopenia
What is a congenital defect that causes bile stasis, impairs liver function and is associated with medullary sponge kidney and hepatic fibrosis?
What will not be dilated with hepatic congestion?
What correctly describes myelolipoma?
adrenal tumor that is composed of fat and bony elements
While performing US on teh liver, a transverse view reveals a hyperechoic triangular structure in the inferior left lobe. The hyperechoic structure demonstrates an anechoic center that fills with color when Doppler is applied. Which of the following best describes the finding identified on the image?
recanalized umbilical vein
The primary indication for a liver transplant in an adult is _______ and in children _____ is the most common indication for liver transplant.
hep C, biliary atresia
_______ is the most common malignancy of the liver seen in a patient with AIDS. _________ is the most common infection of the liver seen in a patient with AIDS.
kaposi sarcoma, pneumocystis carinii
What are some things suggestive of Ormond disease?
pedal edema and scrotal swelling
What is a sign of splenomegaly?
the spleen extends below the lower pole of the left kidney
What vessels are a common source for a Type II endoleak?
inferior mesenteric artery and lumbar arteries
The IVC is dilated and the spontaneous contrast phenomenon is seen in the proximal segment. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
congestive heart failure
What describes a giant cell tumor of the hand?
does not move with the adjacent tendon with flexion and extension
An asymptomatic patient presents for an abd US due to a strong family history of pancreatic cancer. You identify a 1.8 cm cyst the upper pole of the left kidney. The cyst contains debris that layers in the dependent portion of the cyst when the patient changes position. These findings are most suggestive of:
milk of calcium cyst
What is the primary reason a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RLND) is performed?
to determine if systemic chemotherapy is needed
What is the most common cause for an abd mass in a newborn?
multicystic kidney disease
Which of the following describes the most common sonographic appearance of hepatoma?
solid mass that may be more or less echogenic than liver parenchyma
The most common cause of small bowel obstruction in adults is ________. The most common cause of small bowel obstruction in an infant is _______.
A cyst within a cyst (daughter cyst) is a classic sign of:
hydatid cyst or echinococcal cyst
What correctly describes transitional cell carcinoma?
most commonly presents as diffuse bladder wall thickening with multiple masses within the wall
What correctly describes Non-Hodgkin lymphoma?
it is much less responsive to treatment than hodgkin type
What is an epiploic appendagitis?
inflammation of the thick fatty strands that attach to the serosal surface of the colon
Tumefactive sludge would demonstrate a sonographic appearance similar to what?
secondary GB carcinoma, benign polyp, primary GB carcinoma
What is false in regards to pancreatic divisum?
sonographically demonstrates a classic V-shaped organ with increased vascularity
What is a sonographic characteristic most suggestive of acute renal vein thrombosis?
diastolic flow reversal in the renal arteries
What is the most definitive sonographic sign of cirrhosis?
decreased liver size with coarse texture and nodule formation
What correctly describes how to aid in differentiating a thyroid adenoma in the lower pole from a parathyroid adenoma?
thyroid adenomas are hypovascular and parathyroid adenomas are hypervascular
What Doppler parameter is most commonly used when evaluating the common hepatic artery in a patient with a liver transplant?
A vascular condition of the liver seen in women who take oral contraceptives is:
budd chiari syndrome
Histoplasmosis and tuberculosis are the most common cause of ________ formation in the liver and spleen.
A patient with choledochal cysts has an increased risk of developing ____________.
Acalculous cholecystitis is a common finding in with what?
history of recent abd surgery, AIDS, sepsis, CHF, chronic IV nutrition
_______________ should be suspected in an infant with a large hepatic hemangioma and unexplained thrombocytopenia.
What is false regarding pancreatic masses?
the location of a mass in the head of the pancreas usually indicated a malignant process
Creeping fat is a sign of:
Splenic vein thrombosis is a common finding in patients with:
What Doppler finding is most suggestive of partial testicular torsion?
asymmetric resistive indices on the intratesticular Doppler evaluations
A disorder that affects the pancreas by causing it to excrete a thick mucus-like substance that inhibits the exocrine function is called:
Gastrinomas are the most common islet cell tumor seen with:
What term describes a GB that is filled with bile that is isoechoic to the liver and is difficult to identify on US?
What will demonstrate the lowest resistive index value?
acute renal artery occlusion
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is usually seen in patients with:
What is a common complication of cystic fibrosis?
What is the most common cause of spread of hepatitis in the US?
IV drug users
You are scanning a patient that had a bilateral thyroidectomy 3 years ago. There are 3 round, anechoic lymph nodes identified between the mid common carotid artery and the sternocleidomastoid muscle. How will you report these findings?
possible abnormal lymph nodes in level III
What correctly describes angiosarcoma of the spleen?
arises from the vascular endothelium and demonstrates increased vascularity
A 30 y.o. male presents with pelvic discomfort. He has a 2 year history of HIV infection and is an insulin dependent diabetic. When evaluating the urinary bladder, you identify a mobile, round, hyperechoic solid mass with no posterior shadowing. What is the most likely diagnosis for these findings?
A pseudocyst most commonly forms in which retroperitoneal space?
anterior pararenal space
Which of the following describes the best way to image the patellar tendon with US?
evaluate the patellar attachments from an anterior approach
Increased thyroid volume is associated with:
chronic renal failure, iodine deficiency, acute hepatitis
A patient presents with a history of RUQ pain. He currently uses anabolic steroids. The exam demonstrates multiple irregular anechoic areas throughout the liver parenchyma. No internal flow is documented in these areas on color doppler evaluation. These findings are suggestive of:
What vessels will be abnormally dilated with significant portal HTN?
MPV and left gastric vein
Hutch diverticula are identified in the:
The most common benign liver tumor is:
How does a junctional parenchymal defect appear on US examination?
triangular hyperechoic area on the anterior aspect of the upper pole of the right kidney
Primary sclerosing cholangitis significantly increases the risk of developing:
Median arcuate ligament syndrome involves compression of which vessel during respiration?
While scanning the liver in a patient with chronic cirrhosis, you notice a tubular vessel connecting to the splenic vein just prior to its confluence with the SMV. Flow within the vessel is very low velocity, continuous and moving in a cephalic direction. Which of the following explains the US findings?
a dilated coronary vein is present which is a common complication of cirrhosis
What sonographic characteristic is least likely to be identified in a patient with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid?
Zenker diverticulum can be mistaken for:
a thyroid mass
Phlegmon formation, abscess formation, prominent pericecal fat and loculated pericecal fluid collections are sonographic findings that are most suggestive of:
What metabolic disorder is associated with hepatic adenoma formation and fatty infiltration of the liver?
glycogen storage disease
What is the most common liver malignancy
A patient is referred for an abd US after a CT demonstrated a possible mass near the fundus of the GB. the US demonstrates mild hepatomegaly with a mild diffuse increase in echogenicity. The area in question appears hypoechoic to the surrounding tissues. These findings are most consistent with:
focal fatty sparing
What is another term for biliary hamartomas?
von Meyenburg Complexes
Increased renal fat in the renal sinus with a thinned cortex indicates:
A patient presents for an abd US to verify findings identified on a CT exam. The CT report indicates numerous cystic structures throughout the liver that communicate with the biliary tree. Which of the following could be used to describe the expected US diagnosis?
caroli disease or choledochal cysts
What correctly describes xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis?
most cases present with staghorn calculus and thinned renal cortex
Phlegmon formation is associated with:
What are the most common causes of splenic abscesses?
endocarditis, septicemia, and trauma
The Achilles' tendon most commonly ruptures:
about 4 cm from the distal insertion point
Priapism is an abnormality of:
Acute occlusion of the main renal artery can cause _________ acute renal failure.
_________ abscesses are most commonly found in countries outside the US. ___________ abscesses are most commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients.
What usually causes an echinococcal cyst in the liver?
ingesting raw pork
____________ artery aneurysms are commonly associated with pancreatitis and peptic ulcer disease, while ________ artery aneurysms are usually caused by cystic medial necrosis.
splenic, superior mesenteric
What is most likely to cause posterior shadowing?
Which of the following liver tumors is usually treated by surgical resection due to risk of hemorrhage and malignant transformation?
Liver hemangiomas are a common benign neoplasm that will usually appear on an US of a normal liver as:
well defined, hyperechoic liver mass
A tardus parvus waveform is described as:
absence of early systolic peak and prolonged acceleration time
What is the least likely sonographic characteristic of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid?
multiple cystic areas within the mass
While scanning the liver in a patient with chronic cirrhosis, you notice a tubular vessel connecting to the left portal vein and exiting the liver coursing inferiorly. Flow within the vessel is very low velocity, continuous and moving in a caudal direction. Which of the following explains the ultrasound findings?
a dilated umbilical vein is present which is a common complication of cirrhosis
What correctly describes liver adenomas?
surgical intervention is usually recommended because of risk of internal hemorrhage, encapsulated mass that is more common in women, associated with glycogen storage disease
What describes the sonographic appearance of focal nodular hyperplasia?
a single mass <5cm with a central scar and prominent central and radial vasculatity
A solid nodule in the left lobe of the thyroid that measures 2cm AP and 1 cm width is most suggestive of:
What is the most common finding with congestive hepatomegaly?
What is least likely to be associated with gallbladder sludge?
elevated cholecystokinin levels
A patient is referred for an abd US after a CT demonstrated a possible mass in the posterior right lobe of the liver. The US demonstrates a hyperechoic mass with smooth borders and posterior enhancement. These findings are most suggestive of:
What is the most common liver malignancy identified on US?
What describes the sonographic appearance of the pancreas with chronic cystic fibrosis?
decreased size and increased overall echogenicity
Which of the following correctly describes papillary thyroid cancer?
most commonly presents as a hypoechoic mass with calcifications
Benign liver masses will usually demonstrate US contrast enhancement during the arterial and portal venous phases of imaging. Malignant masses will usually demonstrate:
contrast enhancement during the arterial phase of imaging
What two bladder abnormalities are most commonly associated with a duplicated collecting system
Which of the following describes the expected waveform from the hepatic vein in a patient with cirrhosis?
monophasic, continuous antegrade flow
Which of the following is caused by drinking water contaminated with protozoan parasites and is most commonly found in countries outside os the US?
Diastolic flow reversal in the right and left hepatic arteries of a newly placed liver allograft indicates:
Leydig cell tumors of the testicle will demonstrate high serum levels of ______________ which can lead to ______________.
testosterone, precocious puberty
Because there is a risk of cholangiocarcinoma with all cases of _________, surgical resection is recommended.
Massive adrenal gland enlargement, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly are common findings in what autosomal recessive disorder?
Which of the following correctly describes how contrast enhances US can be used to differentiate benign and malignant masses?
benign nodules usually demonstrate isovascular enhancement while malignant tumors usually demonstrate hypervascular enhancement
If the common hepatic duct is obstructed, how will this affect the other biliary structures?
contracted GB and dilated intrahepatic ducts
Which of the following describes the sonographic appearance of acute pancreatic allograft rejection?
high resistance flow in transplant arteries and heterogeneous appearance of the gland
__________ refers to a rare genetic disorder characterized by visceral cysts, renal and pancreatic cysts, benign masses, and the potential for malignant transformation in multiple organ systems.
von Hippel Lindau syndrome
What is the key anatomic landmark in differentiating direct, indirect, and spigelian hernias?
inferior epigastric artery
Patients with ________ have a significantly increased risk of developing a seminoma.
A scrotal pearl refers to:
a large extra-testicular calcification
About 50% of all primary tumors that metastasize to the liver are drained through the:
Which of the following is not an expected finding with adrenal myelolipoma?
comet tail artifact
Congestive splenomegaly is an expected finding in patients with:
congestive heart failure and splenic thrombosis
Which of the following is the least likely complication associated with chronic hydronephrosis?
A patient presents for a renal US after an aortic surgery led to sepsis. The findings on the image are most consistent with:
acute tubular necrosis
What condition is associated with prominent portal walls?
___________ refers to a collection of serous fluid in the popliteal fossa.
If discovered in early stages, which of the following effects on the liver can be reversed?
All of the following correctly describes a scalp hematoma, except:
most commonly caused by motor vehicle trauma
Unilateral renal agenesis is associated with what anomaly in women? and in men?
bicornuate uterus, agenesis of the seminal vesicles
Which of the following is potential collateral pathway formed in patients with cirrhosis?
blood moves from the superior rectal vein to middle rectal vein
Schistosomiasis is an ________ cause of portal HTN. Budd Chiari syndrome is an ____________ cause of portal HTN.
intrahepatic presinusoidal, intrahepatic postsinusoidal
Which of the following statements is true regarding the sonographic appearance of fatty infiltration?
as fatty infiltration increases in the liver, the portal vein branches become more difficult to visualize
A patient with a seminoma of the left testicle will usually be treated by __________, while a patient with a non-seminomatous tumor of the left testicle will usually be treated by _________.
unilateral orchiectomy and chemotherapy, unilateral orchiectomy
Ascites is usually associated with all of the following, except:
All of the following correctly describe hepatocellular carcinoma, except:
usually presents as multiple complex masses throughout the liver
Which of the following statements is false regarding the formation of a fluid collection that occurs post renal biopsy?
a lymphocele will normally collapse with probe pressure while a hematoma will not change when probe pressure is applied
A patient presents for their annual screening US after a complete thyroidectomy with to papillary carcinoma. You identify a 1 cm uniformly hypoechoic mass lateral to the trachea. The mass is painful with transducer pressure and pain radiates to the head and chest. These findings are most suggestive of:
Which of the following is correct regarding acute pyelonephritis?
usually treated with antibiotics
Which of the following GB abnormalities have a very similar appearance on US evaluation and clinical history is necessary for differentiation?
hemobilia and sludge
What renal tumor is a hypoechoic mass most commonly found in the renal pelvis?
transitional cell carcinoma
A patient presents for a liver US. A 5 cm mass is identified at the porta hepatis of the liver. How will this affect the IVC position in the abd?
IVC will be displaced posteriorly
A patient is referred for a RUQ scan due to the possibility of a fungal infection of the liver. They have a 4 yr. history of treatment for AIDS. The liver demonstrates diffuse presentation of multiple calcifications of different sizes, with and without shadowing. These findings are most consistent with:
When evaluating a patient with an aortic endograft, what is the minimum increase in aortic sac size that indicates a possible endoleak?
What are risk factors for thyroid cancer?
personal history of previous papillary cancer, diagnosis of MEN syndrome, personal history of radiation treatment of a cerebral malignancy
What is a sonographic characteristic of acute tubular necrosis?
prominent renal pyramids
Regarding the AO, fusiform aneurysm formation usually occurs in the ________ while dissecting aneurysms usually occur in the _______.
distal abd AO, AO arch
Which of the following statements best describes the Doppler tracing found in the stalk of a pseudoaneurysm?
high resistance to and fro flow
If a liver transplant patient has a piggyback anastomosis, how does this affect your evaluation?
there will be a single anastomosis site in the IVC that must be evaluated
What best describes the Doppler tracing found within the body of a pseudoaneurysm?
low resistance to and fro flow
What are associated findings with gastrinoma formation in the pancreas?
associated with zollinger-ellison syndrome, symptoms include indigestion and esophageal reflux, increased serum levels of gastrin
A fluid collection between the diaphragm and splenic capsule may represent:
How can a large gallstone (> 3 cm) be differentiated from a porcelain gallbladder?
the posterior wall of the GB can be evaluated in patients with porcelain GB but not in patients with a large stone
A 55 y.o. female presents with a fever, leukocytosis, and LLQ pain. She states she suffers from Crohn's disease. The exam demonstrates a 2.7 cm ill-defined hypoechoic mass in the LLQ that is surrounded by a small amount of ascites. There is no flow within the mass and no movement with peristalsis. These findings are most suggestive of:
Which of the following is required when performing liver elastography?
patient should perform a neutral breath hold for a few seconds when recording measurements
Periportal cuffing is a sign of:
What is a Doppler indication of acute renal vein thrombosis?
resistive index >0.7 in the cortex
A 5'8", 140 lb. female patient presents for an US after a recent trip to Africa. She complains of nausea, vomiting, and RUQ pain for about a month. The liver measures 11.2 cm in length. The walls of the right and left portal veins appear thickened and their lumens narrowed. Doppler evaluation demonstrates occlusion of the right portal branches. The MPV is patent with 15 mm diameter. The spleen length is recorded at 13 cm. These findings are most suggestive of:
Which of the following would be identified on an US of a patient in the earlier stages of Budd Chiari syndrome?
hypertrophy of the caudate lobe
Splenic calcifications are commonly seen with what type of infection?
What is associated with echogenic debris/calcification in the renal pyramids?
Which of the following would normally present as a hypoechoic renal mass?
What is a common cause for rectus sheath hematomas?
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is a common occurrance with:
What correctly describes hepatic candidiasis?
refers to a fungal infection of the liver, mass formation pattern is described as a wheel within a wheel, causes abscess formation within the liver
A doctor refers an infant for a chest US exam due to a history of a chest mass seen in the left low lobe on X-Ray. You identify a well defined hypoechoic mass in the area of interest. Color Doppler demonstrates arterial supply to the mass from a branch of the aorta. These findings are most suggestive of:
Splenic vein thrombosis can lead to what life threatening condition?
GI bleed from gastric varices
What congenital anomaly of the pancreas results in duodenal obstruction?
_________ is the most common cause for micronodular cirrhosis and ________ is the most common cause of macronodular cirrhosis.
alcohol consumption, chronic viral hepatitis
Hashimoto disease is the most common type of _________ and leads to _________.
hypothyroidism, diffuse enlargement of the gland
A TIPS is placed into the liver circulation to alleviate portal HTN. What two vessels are usually connected?
portal vein connects to the RHV
Multicystic dysplastic kidneys are usually the result of:
an obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction in utero
A patient with an isolated slight increase in liver function tests. You identify two hyperechoic, homogeneous masses in the area of the porta hepatis. These findings are most consistent with: focal fatty infiltration
focal fatty infiltration
A splenic ___________ is a cartilaginous tumor.
A pseudocyst has no ___________, which helps to differentiate it from a true pancreatic cyst.
Analgesic abuse is the most common cause of what renal abnormality?
On US, a mycetoma appears as:
a hyperechoic mass without posterior shadowing
A patient presents for an US of the RUQ due to a recent diagnosis of duodenal cancer. If liver metastasis is present, what are the expected sonographic findings?
multiple hyperechoic lesions
All of the following statements correctly describe infantile hemangioendothelioma, EXCEPT:
highly aggressive liver malignancy seen early in life
How can a hepatic adenoma be differentiated from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) on contrast enhanced ultrasound?
FNH lesions usually demonstrate centrifugal enhancement while adenomas demonstrate centripetal enhancement
Corpora amylacea is benign condition of what organ?
GB polyps measuring greater than _________ in diameter are highly suspicious for malignancy.
All of the following are considered indirect signs of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, except?
hypoechoic mass in the pancreatic head
Which of the following is a common cause of exudate pleural effusion?
A 30 y.o. male presents with fever, malaise, and mild to moderate right scrotal pain that began 3 days ago. Lab results indicate leukocytosis is present. The right testicle demonstrates mild diffuse heterogeneity. PW Doppler evaluation of the affected side produces a waveform with peaked antegrade systolic flow and diastolic flow reversal. These findings are most suggestive of:
acute orchitis with venous infarction
Which of the following tumor is least likely to demonstrate a central scar?
The most common benign breast mass is the _______ and the most common malignant breast mass is ___________.
fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinoma
Which of the following is least likely to be associated with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome?
Sonographic signs of chronic renal failure include a/an ____________ in size and a/an ____________ in echogenicity.
Which of the following correctly describes how a sonographer can differentiate a neuroblastoma from a nephroblastoma on an abd US?
the neuroblastoma will not distort the renal contour or disrupt the capsule. The nephroblastoma will distort the renal contour and disrupt the capsule
Which of the following is the most common cause of acute renal failure in an allograft?
acute tubular necrosis
A patient presents for an abd US due to a history of elevated amylase. She was diagnosed 5 years ago with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome. You identify a round, lobulated hyperechoic mass in the body of the pancreas. Mild posterior enhancement is present. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis for the abnormality displayed?
Which congenital anomaly is associated with hydronephrosis of the upper or lower pole of the kidney?
duplicated collecting system
Which of the following is associated with an autosplenectomy?
sickle cell anemia
Which of the following correctly describes how to differentiate cholangitis from cholangiocarcinoma?
cholangitis is a diffuse disease process while cholangiocarcinoma causes focal mass formation
What type of liver infection/abscess is commonly associated with immunocompromised patients?
Which of the following can be treated using lithotripsy techniques?
Which of the following correctly describes the sonographic appearance of renal lymphoma?
bilateral renal enlargement
What is the most common abd lesion seen with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome?
A patient presents with splenomegaly and multiple, small, tortuous vessels visualized in the porta hepatis area of the liver. These vessels most likely represent:
A liver mass with a hypoechoic rim should create a strong suspicion of:
A thyroid mass with a hypoechoic rim should create a strong suspicion of:
A patient with a history of Conn disease presents for an abd US exam. Two 1 cm round hypoechoic tumors are identified in the left adrenal gland. These findings are most suggestive of:
Renal cell carcinoma is also called:
Splenic vein thrombosis and splenic artery pseudoaneurysm formation are vascular complications seen with:
A renal transplant is usually positioned in the RLQ with an arterial connection with what native artery?
Who would most likely demonstrate a 10 cm spleen with homogeneous echotexture?
50 y.o. with a splenic artery aneurysm
Which of the following is caused by a pituitary tumor?
The most common finding with choledochal cysts is:
cystic dilatation of the CBD
A 4 month old presents for an abd US following a recent Kasai procedure. Which of the following US findings would indicate the procedure was a success?
normal liver echotexture with normal biliary duct diameter
A patient presents for and US of the RUQ due to a recent diagnosis of lung cancer. If liver metastasis is present, what are the expected sonographic findings?
multiple target lesions
Which of the following correctly describes the abnormal response seen on an US exam when a fatty meal is given to a patient with suspected biliary obstruction?
if a biliary obstruction is present, the bile duct diameter will increase immediately after the meal
A 40 y.o. male presents for an abd US exam with a history of anxiety, headaches, and excessive sweating. His current BP is 175/90 mmHg with a pulse of 102 bpm. You identify a 4 cm solid mass superior medial to the left kidney. The mass is highly vascular. These findings are most consistent with:
________ transplant rejection appears as swollen kidney, loss of corticomedullary definition, enlarged renal pyramids, compression of the renal sinus, and decreased blood flow with increased RI value.
All of the following correctly describes a mechanical bowel obstruction, except:
best evaluated by US after patient drinks at least 32 oz of water
The renal collecting system is dilated and contains mildly echogenic material with dirty shadowing posteriorly. This most likely represents:
An infant is referred for an abd sonogram due to prolonged jaundice after birth. A small triangular echogenic area is identified at the portal vein bifurcation, but no definite extrahepatic duct is noted. The GB is very small and abnormally shaped. These findings are most suggestive of:
Hepatic fibrosis and portal HTN are seen with which of the following?
juvenile autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
A 2 week post-op liver transplant patient is referred for an abd US due to the presence of an abd bruit. Hepatic artery stenosis is suspected. Which of the following Doppler characteristics of the hepatic artery will be seen in this patient if flow is normal?
absence of diastolic flow reversal
A benign thyroid adenoma is associated with __________ calcification(s), while malignant adenomas are associated with _________ calcification(s).
A patient presents with a history of AIDS and recent pneumocystis carinii infection. What changes to the liver do you expect to see on the US exam?
diffuse echogenic foci throughout the liver tissue
What biliary abnormality is a common finding in patients with hemolytic anemia?
A male patient presents with a palpable flank mass, pain, hematuria, and a history of Von Hippel Lindau syndrome. The findings on the image are most suggestive of:
renal cell carcinoma
What penile structure is usually fractured with penile trauma?
How does significant hydronephrosis affect the blood flow in the renal cortex?
increases the Ri in the arcuate arteries
What is most commonly affected by a mumps infection?
In patients with cirrhosis, what effect will deep inspiration have on the portal vein?
there will be minimal change in the portal vein diameter
What type of aneurysm is most commonly associated with autosomal dominant PCKD?
Which of the following is the most common cause for intrahepatic cholestasis?
Cirrhosis causes reduced serum albumin levels. What complication does this cause?
ascites and peripheral edema
Which of the following lists the most common US findings with acute glomerulonephritis?
bilateral renal enlargement with increased cortical echogenicity
Which of the following renal pathologies will appear the same sonographically as focal acute pyelonephritis?
Which of the following describes the appearance of the liver in a patient in the later stages of cirrhosis caused by viral hepatitis?
multiple nodules usually 1 - 5 cm in size
Which of the following will lead to increased levels of indirect bilirubin in the blood?
A patient presents with a recent diagnosis of lymphoma. Which of the following is an expected finding on the US?
multiple solid tumors are present causing marked increase in spleen size
Gamma-Gandy bodies result in:
The term allograft refers to:
the transplanted organ
Biliary atresia and congenital absence of the GB are associated with which complex congenital defect?
A patient presents with a recent diagnosis of AIDS. Which of the following statements is true regarding the sonographic appearance of spleen in this patient?
the spleen will be mild-moderately enlarged with a homogeneous texture
Which of the following are types of hyperplastic cholecystosis?
adenomyomatosis and cholesterolosis
A patient presents with a recent history of a histoplasmosis infection. The referring doctor would like to evaluate the abd for residual effects from the infection. Which sonographic findings in the abd would be consistent with this type of infection?
multiple echogenic foci in the liver and or spleen parenchyma
Clubbing of the renal calyces is a sign of:
chronic pyelonephritis and papillary necrosis
Which of the following describes carpal tunnel syndrome?
compression of the median nerve by the carpal sheath causing numbness, weakness, and pain
Which of the following has the lowest risk of developing renal cell carcinoma?
patients with autosomal recessive PCKD
A 64 y.o. female presents with recent weight loss and mild jaundice. Lab values demonstrate normal WBC levels, but increased levels of direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and PTT. The GB demonstrates a small wall mass that is isoechoic to the wall tissues. The wall measures 4.5 mm in maximum thickness. Multiple stones are present within the lumen. Which of the following best describes the findings on the image?
primary GB carcinoma and cholelithiasis
A patient presents for a renal US due to a history of tuberous sclerosis. What is the doctor looking for?
Which of the following statements is false regarding urinary tract infections?
the infection most commonly starts in the kidneys and descends into the bladder
A long standing, partial obstruction of the cystic duct will most likely lead to which of the following?
mucocele of the GB
Which of the following usually affects the pancreatic head?
focal pancreatitis and adenocarcinoma
Which of the following correctly describes marfan syndrome?
genetic disorder that affects connective tissues of the heart, vessels, and bones
What lab value increases with GB cancer, cholecystitis or prolonged biliary pbstruction?
All of the following are potential malignant features of a pancreatic cyst, except:
cyst size < 3 cm
You are scanning through the liver and note the caudate lobe is nearly the same size as the right lobe. The surface of the liver appears lobulated or nodular. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis of these findings?
A new liver mass in a patient with sclerosing cholangitis should cause suspicion of:
the development of cholangiocarcinoma
A 66 y.o. female presents for an abd US due to bloating and pain following a recent cholecystectomy. The bile ducts demonstrate varied level of increased echogenicity with dirty shadowing and ring down artifact posterior to several segments. These findings are most consistent with?
Which of the following can lead to a false positive diagnosis of stones in the biliary system?
shadowing from surgical clip in porta hepatis
__________ is the most common malignant liver mass found in children.
___________ is one of the most common surgical procedures in the US and most patients are males, less than 1 y.o.
The most common cause for fluid collection in the perirenal space is __________. The most common cause for fluid collection in the posterior pararenal space is ____________.
renal abnormalities, aortic disease
Which of the following biliary abnormalities is associated with chronic cholecystitis?
Which of the following splenic tumors is associated with tuberous sclerosis or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome?
The WES sign indicates a diagnosis of:
Which of the following is an intratesticular mass associated with Cushing syndrome and adrenal hyperplasia
Which of the following is true regarding a liver hemangioma?
color Doppler is not usually helpful in evaluating this highly vascular mass
A patient presents for a neck US that has a history of papillary carcinoma and bilateral thyroidectomy. What area of the neck is most commonly involved in recurrence?
level III and IV lymph nodes between the carotid artery and the sternocleidomastoid
Diffuse or focal GB wall thickening may be seen with all of the following, except:
While evaluating the liver and biliary tree, a stone is noted in the CBD adjacent to the pancreatic head. Which of the following is not an expected finding on the rest of the exam?
Which of the following correctly describes peliosis hepatis?
blood filled cavities of varied size form in the liver tissue
A patient presents with epigastric pain and nausea. Lab values demonstrate increased levels of amylase, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and LFTs. A cystic mass with thickened walls is identified in the head of the pancreas. No color flow is identified in the mass. Two small hypoechoic masses are identified in the mass. Two small hypoechoic masses are identified in the area of the pancreatic head near the porta hepatis. Which of the following best describes the findings?
A patient is referred for a renal US due to suspected cross fused renal ectopia. What is the expected US finding for this condition?
both kidneys are located on the same side of the body and fused together at varied locations
A patient is scheduled for an abd US every six months due to their history of cirrhosis. Which of the following is true?
patients with cirrhosis should have their liver vasculature evaluated regularly due to an increased risk of portal thrombosis
A 45 y.o. female patient presents with nausea and vomiting, RUQ pain, fever, and increased WBC. The GB is not enlarged and filled with echogenic material that does not shadow or demonstrate fluid levels. These findings are most consistent with:
empyema of the GB
What are the two most common infections that cause granuloma formation in the spleen?
tuberculosis and histoplasmosis
Primary GB carcinoma most commonly presents as:
diffusely thickened GB wall with stones
What is a common complication of a liver transplant?
A patient presents for a 2 month follow up for liver transplant. Lab tests indicate abnormal LFTs, increased bilirubin and jaundice. The US exam demonstrates a new focal dilatation of the bile duct at the porta hepatis with mildly dilated intrahepatic ducts just inside the liver. The pancreas is normal. These findings are most consistent with:
According to the DeBakey Classification system, what type of aortic dissection is most commonly associated with Marfan syndrome?
What is involved with the DeBakey Classification Type I?
ascending and descending AO
What is involved with the DeBakey Classification Type II?
What is involved with the DeBakey Classification Type III?
Which of the DeBakey Classification types is the least common and associated with Marfan syndrome?
Which of the DeBakey Classifications has the lowest mortality rate?
Massive splenomegaly is defined as a spleen that exceeds __________ in length.
Which of the following statements is correct regarding hernias?
patients with one hernia should be evaluated for other types of ipsilateral and contralateral groin or anterior abd hernias
The most common cause of acute renal failure is ________ and the most common cause of chronic renal failure it ___________.
acute tubular necrosis, diabetes mellitus
A 56 y.o. male presents with acute onset of epigastric pain that has persisted for about 2 days. His lab tests demonstrate elevated bilirubin, amylase, and lipase. Multiple mobile echogenic foci are present in the GB with a wall thickness of 2.4 mm. The CBD measures 6 mm and appears patent. The pancreas is mildly enlarged with posterior enhancement. Which of the following best describes these findings?
acute pancreatitis with cholelithiasis
What is an incidentaloma?
an unexpected mass on an imaging exam
A patient presents for a follow up US due to Budd Chiari syndrome. Which of the following is an expected finding on the exam?
thrombosis of the hepatic veins with hepatic congestion
A patient presents for an abd US with a history of a renal and pancreatic transplant. What chronic medical condition is a common primary reason for the transplant?
type I diabetes
Which of the following biliary conditions is the most common cause of acute cholecystitis?
stone lodged in the cystic duct
A porcelain GB causes an increase in the patient's risk for __________.
What causes pseudopancreatitis?
A patient presents for an abd US due to a family history of pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma. The US demonstrates a complex mass in the pancreatic head. Also demonstrated is a 12 cm GB with no stones or wall thickening and the CBD is patent measuring 10 mm. The patient has a negative Murphy sign. These findings are most suggestive of:
A patient is scanned for symptoms of mild epigastric pain. A nearly isoechoic liver mass is identified in the caudate lobe. A liver biopsy demonstrates normal live call structure but abnormal cellular arrangement. What type of mass was identified on the US image?
focal nodular hyperplasia
Acute cholecystitis can lead to a prominent ___________ and its branches with color Doppler evaluation of the thickened GB wall.
An impacted stone in the GB neck increases the risk of developing:
cholecystitis and gangrene
The most likely primary malignancy to metastasize to the spleen is ____________. The most common malignancies to metastasize to the spleen are _________.
melanoma; lung and breast cancer
A 56 y.o. male presents with epigastric pain, nausea, and a chronic history of alcoholism. Lab values demonstrate increased levels of amylase and lipase. Hematocrit levels are below normal values. The US exam demonstrates a hypoechoic, enlarged pancreas with periglandualr fluid. Which of the following best describes the findings?
What congenital anomaly of the pancreas results in two separate ductal systems that drain the pancreas?
What is the most significant complication of a hernia?
The most common location for the formation of a pancreatic pseudocyst is ___________.
within the lesser sac of the omental layers
Which of the following will cause an increase in AFP values in pediatric patients?
Bacterial cholangitis is nearly always seen with:
ductal obstruction by a stone or tumor
An inflammation of the biliary tree common in HIV patients is ccalled:
Chronic cholecystitis is commonly associated with:
Splenic atrophy in adults is often associated with:
sickle cell anemia
Reduced glycogen storage in the liver usually causes the liver parenchyma to have a sonographic appearance similar to:
You identify free fluid above the right diaphragm that contains internal debris and septations. The fluid collection has a honeycomb appearance. These findings are most suggestive of?
exudative pleural effusion
A 40 y.o. female patient presents with increasing RUQ pain over the last month, beginning upon returning from a trip to Indonesia.
Sets with similar terms
Davie's abdomen review: part 4 Urinary system
Davie's abdomen review: part 4 Urinary system
Mosby's Comprehensive Review Chapter 7 LIVER
Other sets by this creator
Abdominal arteries and normal flow patterns
Complex renal cysts clinical and sonographic findi…
Renal Variants in Appearance and Location - Urinar…
Blood tests and associated abnormalities - urinary…
Other Quizlet sets
Ch. 10 Antitubercular and Antifungal Dru…
ECON 202 Final exam study guide
Exam 1 Physics part 1