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96 terms

19-EKG

STUDY
PLAY
ECG or EKG is
the graphic representation of the electrical activity that passes through the heart
repolarization
resting - recovering cardia muscle cells
depolarization
contracting - charged and contracting cardiac muscle cells
cardiac cycle
pumping of the heart in a rhythmic cycle of contraction and relaxation
normal adult heart rate
60 - 100
systole is contracting or relaxing
contracting
diastole
relaxing
atrial systole
contraction of atria, forcing blood into ventricle systole through tricuspid and mitral valves
ventricle diastole
relaxation of ventricles, allowing them to fill with blood from atria
ventricle systole
contraction of the ventricles forcing blood through the aortid and pulmonic valves to the aorta and pulmonary artery
atrial diastole
relaxation of atria allowing them to fill with blood from the vena cava and pulmonary veins
depolarization
contract
repolarization
resting
PQRST
one heartbeat --- sometimes U wave
P-wave represents
atrial depolarization - contracting
Q-wave
downward deflection after the P wave
R-wave
upward spike after Q wave
S-wave
downward deflection after the R wave
T-wave
upward - repolarization and resting of the ventricles
U-wave
(sometimes) upward slow repolarization- resting
QRS
contraction of the venticles
PR interval
on the bottom longer - the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS, depolarization of the atria SA to the AV
PR segment
is on the top shorter between the P wave & QRS
QT interval
QRST waves representing a full cardiac electrical cycle
ST segment
slight upward line connecting the QRS waves to the T wave which represents contraction of ventricles and relaxation or recovery
define electrodes
sticky pads that adheres to the skin
define lead
are color-coded and contain abbreviations
12-lead EKG records how many bipolar, unipolar, and precordial leads
three bipolar, three unipolar, six precordial leads
all chest leads are
precordial
how many chest precordial leads are there
six
three bipolar
limb leads lead I lead II lead III
three - unipolar
aVR RA electrode, AVL LA electrode,
aVF LL electrode
V1- prerecordial
fourth right
V2- prerecordial
fourth left
V3- prerecordial
midway between V2 and V4
V4- prerecordial
fifth left midclavicular line
V5- prerecordial
midway between V4 and V6
V6- prerecordial
fifth rib left armpit
bipolar lead I
start at the Right Arm to Left Arm
bipolar lead II
starting at the Right Arm again to the Left leg
bipolar lead III
starting at the Left Arm to the Left Leg
just remember left and left
unipolar aVR + Right Arm
zaps the left arm and left leg
unipolar aVL + Left Arm
zaps the right arm and left leg
unipolar aVF + Left Foot
zaps the both arms
ECG paper horizontal line does what
time
ECG paper vertical line does what
voltage or amplitude
what is the measurement on the smallest blocks on ECG graph paper
1mm x 1mm which is 0.04 sec
when preparing a patient for ECG, never place electrodes
over bony prominences
cube of 5 mm x 5 mm
is the large block- marked darker to make a cube- 0.2 sec
normal standardization mark is how high
10 mm high
a 12 lead EKG records
three bipolar, three unipolar and six precordial leads-chest leads
paper speed is at
25mm/sec
lead V3 is located where
midway between V2 and V4
LV1
RA + LA + LL to V1; fourth intercostal space at right margin of sternum
LV2
RA + LA + LL to V2; fourth intercostal space at left margin of sternum
LV3
RA + LA + LL to V3: midway between V2 and V4
LV4
RA + LA +LL to V4; fifth intercostal space at junction of midclavicular line
LV5
RA + LA +LL to V5; horizontal level of V4 at left anterior axillary line
LV6
RA + LA +LL to V6;horizontal level of V4 and V5 at midaxillary line
grounding lead is
Right Leg electrode
AC
alternating current
lead III measures
remember zaps left arm and left leg
leads I II III are
standard limb leads also known as bipolar leads
positive and negative poles
triangle - bipolar leads one positive, one negative
bipolar leads are
leads I, II and III
in an ECG aVR, aVL, and a VF represent
augmented limb leads
AC artifact in an ECG tracing usually occurs when
there is electrical interference in the room
augmented voltage leads
when performing an ECG leads aVR, aVL, and aVF are the
atrial depolarization
when performing an ECG, the P wave of the ECG complex represents the
lead 1 of the ECG tracing is the heart view between the
right arm (RA) and the left arm (LA)
wandering baseline
the artifact that would show on an ECG tracing if the patient electrodes are too loose is
V1 marking code is
dash and one dot
V2 marking code is
dash and two dots
V3 marking code is
dash and three dots ect, V4 dash four dots V5 dash five dots V6 dash six dots
aVR marking code is
one dash
aVL marking code is
two dashes
aVF marking code is
three dashes
Lead I marking code is
one dot, lead II two dots, lead III three dots
define stylus
heated penlike instrument
artifacts
interruptions resulting from activity outside the heart
bradycardia
slower 60 beats per minute
tachycardia
faster 100 beats per minute
asystole
flat line
ectopic beat
outside the sinoatrial SA node pacemaker of the heart
arrhythmias
irregular heart activites loss of regular rhythm
premature ventricular contraction PVC
report to physician - contraction of the ventricles occuring early
ventricular tachycardia
wide QRS life threatening arrhythmia 100 to 150 beats
atrial fibrillation
350 to 500 beats per minute P waves not distinct because of rapid rate R to R waves are usually irregular often with a rapid ventricular rate
ventricular fibrillation
quivering of the heart life threatening arrhythmia should be reported immediately
premature atrial contraction PAC
contraction of the atria occurring early
atrial tachycardia- AT
150 to 250 beats P waves are often unidentifiable or hidden in previous T wave
wondering baseline
electrodes too loose
somatic muscle tremor
involuntary or voluntary muscle movement or other movement
AC interference
caused by electricity in the room
atrial flutter
saw tooth
bigeminy
every other beat is ectopic or premature