Only $35.99/year

26,27,28 test

Terms in this set (140)

The leading Fauve artist in France was Henri Matisse. Matisse was born in northern France. He reportedly decided to become a painter when his mother gave him a set of chromos (colors) while he was recuperating from surgery. His Woman with the Hat (a portrait of his wife) of 1905 (fig. 26.3) is a construction in color—a concept that Matisse had learned from Cézanne. Throughout the picture plane, shading, modeling, and perspective are subordinate to color, which creates the features. The result is a nonorganic masklike quality. The background of the painting is identified only as patches of color. To the right of Madame Matisse (our left) are greens, yellows, blues, and oranges. At the opposite side, the background is mainly green and lavender. Variations on these colors recur in the face, creating a chromatic unity between figure and background. The painting caused a scandal in the Paris art world for its unconventional use of color. But when purchased by Michael Stein, Gertrude's brother, the painting's reputation was saved. From that point on, Matisse's prices began to rise.

Fauvism

Cezanne and construction in color- Matisse had learned from Cézanne. Throughout the picture plane, shading, modeling, and perspective are subordinate to color, which creates the features. The result is a nonorganic masklike quality. The background of the painting is identified only as patches of color. To the right of Madame Matisse (our left) are greens, yellows, blues, and oranges. At the opposite side, the background is mainly green and lavender. Variations on these colors recur in the face, creating a chromatic unity between figure and background.
Even more like masks are the faces in Picasso's pivotal picture Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (The Women of Avignon) of 1907 (fig. 27.2). With this representation of five nudes and a still life, Picasso launched a spatial revolution. The subject itself was hardly new, and Picasso had adapted traditional poses from earlier periods of Western art. On the far left, for example, the standing figure nearly replicates the pose of ancient Egyptian kings (see Chapter 5). The left leg is forward, the right arm is extended, and the fist is clenched. Also borrowed from Egypt is the pictorial convention of rendering the face in profile and the eye in front view. Picasso's two central figures, whose arms stretch behind their heads, are based on traditional poses of Venus. Of all the figures, the faces of the seated and standing nudes on the far right are most obviously based on African prototypes. The wooden mask from the Congo in figure 27.3, for example, shares an elongated, geometric quality with the face of the standing figure. Here Picasso has abandoned chiaroscuro in favor of the Fauve preference for bold strokes of color

Historical with the Avant-garde

27.3: Mask from the Etoumi region, Democratic Republic of the Congo- The wooden mask from the Congo in figure 27.3, for example, shares an elongated, geometric quality with the face of the standing figure. Here Picasso has abandoned chiaroscuro in favor of the Fauve preference for bold strokes of color. The nose resembles the long, curved, solid wedge of the mask's nose. Like the mask, Picasso's faces disrupt nature and defy the Classical ideal and are influenced by the contemporary vogue for socalled primitivism. The nose curves to one side, while the mouth shifts to the other

Multiple vantage points- In Les Demoiselles, Picasso fragments the figures into solid geometric constructions with sharp edges and angles. They interact spatially with the background shapes, blurring the distinction between foreground and background. Such distortion of the human figure is particularly startling because it assaults our bodily identity. Light, as well as form, is fragmented into multiple sources so that the observer's point of view is constantly shifting. Because of its revolutionary approach to space and its psychological power, Les Demoiselles represented the greatest expressive challenge to the traditional, Classical ideal of beauty and harmony since the Middle Ages
The devastation of World War I affected the arts as well as other aspects of Western civilization. For the first time in history, armies used trench warfare, barbed wire, machine guns firing along fixed lines, and chemical weapons. After treating the victims of gassing and shell shock in World War I, Freud and other medical researchers published accounts of the long-term psychological traumas of the new warfare. "The lost generation," a phrase coined by Gertrude Stein, captured the overwhelming sense of desolation experienced by the post- World War I intellectuals. In the visual arts of that era, the same pessimism and despair emerged as Dada

The term Dada refers to an international artistic and literary movement that began during World War I in the relative safety of neutral Switzerland. Artists, writers, and performers gathered at the Cabaret Voltaire, a café in Zurich, for discussion, entertainment, and creative exploration. Dada was thus not an artistic style in the sense of shared formal qualities that are easily recognized. Rather, it was an idea, a kind of "antiart," predicated on a nihilist (from the Latin word nihil, meaning "nothing") philosophy of negation. By 1916 the term Dada had appeared in print— a new addition to the parade of aesthetic "manifestos" that developed in the nineteenth century. Dada lasted as a cohesive European movement until about 1920. It also achieved a foothold in New York, where it flourished from about 1915 to 1923

According to the 1916 Manifesto, Dada is French for a child's wooden horse. Da-da are also the first two syllables spoken by children learning to talk, and thus suggest a regression to early childhood. The implication was that artists wished to "start life over." Likewise, Dada's iconoclastic force challenged traditional assumptions about art and had an enormous impact on later twentieth-century conceptual art. Despite the despair that gave rise to Dada, however, a taste for the playful and the experimental was an important, creative, and ultimately hopeful aspect

World War I: "The Lost Generation"
Dada:
1916 Manifesto
"start life over"
Conceptual Art (see your glossary)
One of the major proponents of Dada was Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), whose Nude Descending a Staircase (see fig. 27.15) had caused a sensation at the 1913 Armory Show. He shared the Dadaists' taste for wordplay and punning, which he combined with visual images. Delighting, like a child, in nonsensical repetition, Duchamp entitled his art magazine Wrong Rong. The most famous instance of visual and verbal punning in Duchamp's work is L.H.O.O.Q. (fig. 28.1), whose title is a bilingual pun. Read phonetically in English, the title sounds like "look," which, on one level, is the artist's command to the viewer. If each letter is pronounced according to its individual sound in French, the title reads "Elle (L) a ch (H) aud (O) au (O) cul (Q)," meaning in English "She has a hot ass." Read backward, on the other hand, "look" spells "kool," which counters the forward message.
When viewers do, in fact, look, they see that Duchamp has penciled a beard and mustache onto a reproduction of Leonardo's Mona Lisa (see fig. 16.13), turning her into a bearded lady. One might ask whether Duchamp has "defaced" the Mona Lisa—perhaps a prefiguration of graffiti art (see p. 564)—or merely "touched her up." This question plays with the sometimes fine line between creation and destruction. (The modern expression "You have to break eggs to make an omelet" illustrates the connection between creating and destroying that is made explicit by the Dada movement.) Duchamp called the kind of work exemplified by L.H.O.O.Q. a "ready-made aided." When he merely added a title to an object, he called the result a "ready-made." Duchamp's most outrageous ready-made was a urinal (fig. 28.2) that he submitted as a sculpture to a New York exhibition mounted by the Society of Independent Artists in 1917. He turned it upside down, signed it "R. Mutt," and called it Fountain. The work was rejected by the society, and Duchamp resigned his membership

Word play and puns
How to interpret the title?
Ready-made aided vs. Ready-made
The Russian artist Vassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) was among the first to eliminate recognizable objects from his paintings. He identified with The Blue Rider as the artist who would ride into the future of a spiritual, nonfigurative, and mystical art; for him the color blue signified the masculine aspect of spirituality (cf. fig. 26.9). At the age of thirty, Kandinsky left Moscow, where he was a law student, and went to Munich to study painting. There he was a founder of the Neue Künstler Vereinigung (New Artists' Association), or NKV, whose aim was rebellion against tradition. A few artists split from the NKV to form The Blue Rider.
For Kandinsky, art was a matter of rhythmic lines, colors, and shapes, rather than narrative. Like Whistler, Kandinsky gave his works musical titles intended to express their abstract qualities. By eliminating references to material reality, Kandinsky followed The Blue Rider's avoidance of the mundane in order to communicate the spiritual in art. Titles such as Improvisation evoked the dynamic spontaneity of creative activity, and the Compositions emphasized the organized abstraction of his lines, shapes, and colors. In 1912 Kandinsky published Concerning the Spiritual in Art, in which he argued that music was intimately related to art. He was by temperament drawn to religious and philosophical thinking imbued with strains of mysticism and the occult, which can be related to the millennarian spirit reflected in The Blue Rider emblem. And he believed that art had a spiritual quality because it was the product of the artist's spirituality. The work of art, in turn, reflected this through musical harmonies created by form and color
In 1907 Picasso met the French painter Georges Braque (1882-1963), who had studied the works of Cézanne and had been overwhelmed by Les Demoiselles. Braque is reported to have declared, when he first saw it, that looking at it was like drinking kerosene. For several years Braque worked so closely with Picasso that it can be difficult to distinguish their pictures during the period known as Analytic Cubism. Braque's Violin and Pitcher (fig. 27.5) of 1909-10 is very much like Picasso's works of that time and will serve as an example of the style.
Both the subject matter and the expressive possibilities of color—here limited to dark greens and browns—are subordinated to a geometric exploration of three-dimensional space. The only reminders of natural space and of the objects that occupy it are the violin and pitcher, a brief reference to the horizontal surface of a table, and a vertical architectural support on the right. Most of the picture is a jumble of fragmented cubes and other solid geometric shapes. What would, in reality, be air space is filled up, in Cubism, with multiple lines, planes, and geometric solids. The sense of three-dimensional form is achieved by combining shading with bold strokes of color. Despite the crisp edges of the individual shapes in Analytic Cubist pictures such as this one, the painted images lose parts of their outlines. Whereas in Impressionism edges dissolve into prominent brushstrokes, in Cubism they dissolve into shared geometric shapes. No matter how closely the forms approach dissolution, however, they never dissolve completely. In 1909 Picasso produced the first Cubist sculpture, the bronze Head of a Woman (fig. 27.6), in which he shifted the natural relationship between head and neck, creating two diagonal planes. The hair, as in Analytic Cubist paintings, is multifaceted, and the facial features are geometric rather than organic