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135 terms

The Language of Medicine, 9th ed. - Chapter 17

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pupil
part of the eye where light rays enter
conjunctiva
membrane lining of the inner surfaces of the eyelids and anterior portion of the eyeball over the white of the eye
cornea
a fibrous, transparent tissue layered over the pupil and iris that refracts light rays for proper focusing in the posterior of the eye
sclera
the white of the eye
choroid
dark brown membrane inside the sclera containing many blood vessels
iris
the colored portion of the eye; its muscles help constrict and dilate the pupil
uvea
the choroid, iris, and ciliary body
ciliary body
surrounds and adjusts the shape and thickness of the lens
refraction
the bending of light rays as they pass through the cornea, lens and other tissues
accommodation
refractory adjustment of vision at different distances
aqueous humor
maintains the shape of the anterior portion of the eye and nourishes the structures in that region
vitreous humor
soft, jelly-like material that maintains the shape of the eyeball
retina
the thin, delicate, and sensitive nerve layer of the eye
rods
sensitive receptor cells of the retina that function at reduced levels of light and are responsible for peripheral vision
cones
sensitive receptor cells of the retina that function in bright levels of light and are responsible for color and central vision
optic nerve
Following a chemical change occurring in the rods and cones, nerve impulses are sent from the eye to the brain via this tissue.
optic disc
the region of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina
macula
the small, oval, yellowish area adjacent to the optic disc
fovea centralis
the central depression of the macula; its composed largely of cones and is the location of the sharpest vision in the eye
right
rods and cones are stimulated in the left half of each retina if an object is on THIS side of the visual field
left
fibers from the left half of each retina form an optic tract leading to THIS side of the visual cerebral cortex
binocular vision
images are fused in the occipital lobe of the brain producing a single visual sensation
hemianopsia
the loss of vision, which occurs in both eyes, on the contralateral visual field (e.g., damage to nerve cells in the right visual cerebral cortex causes loss of vision in the left visual field in both eyes)
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid
blepharoptosis
falling or drooping of the eyelid
conjunctivitis
inflammation of the conjunctiva occurring as a result of blood vessel dilation from allergens, bacterial infection, or virus
anisocoria
unequally sized pupils
corneal abrasion
scratch on the cornea
cycloplegia
paralysis of the ciliary body
dacryoadenitis
inflammation of the tear gland
iritis
inflammation of the iris
keratitis
inflammation of the cornea
lacrimation
process of producing tears
intraocular
pertaining to within the eye
ophthalmoplegia
paralysis of the eye
optometrist
nonmedical professional who can examine eyes to determine vision problems and prescribe lenses
optician
nonmedical professional who grinds lenses and fits glasses
palpebral
pertaining to the eyelid
papilledema
swelling of the optic disc
phacoemulsification
technique of cataract extraction using ultrasonic vibrations to fragment the lens and aspirate it from the eye
pupillary
pertaining to the pupil
hypertensive retinopathy
disease of the retina caused by high blood pressure
corneoscleral
pertaining to the cornea and the white of the eye
uveitis
inflammation of the choroid, iris, and ciliary body
amblyopia
the unilateral or bilateral reduction of visual activity
diplopia
double vision
miosis
contraction of the pupil
mydriasis
widening of the pupil
nyctalopia
night blindness
photophobia
light sensitivity
presbyopia
impairment of vision due to old age
scotoma
area of decreased vision surrounded by area of normal vision; blind spot
xerophthalmia
dry eye
hyperopia
farsightedness
esotropia
inward turning of the eye
exotropia
outward turning of the eye
astigmatism
defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
myopia
nearsightedness
cataract
clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
chalazion
small, hard, cystic mass on the eyelid formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland
diabetic retinopathy
retinal effects of diabetes mellitus including microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization
glaucoma
increased intraocular pressure resulting in damage to the retina and optic nerve with loss of vision
tonometry
measures intraocular pressure to detect glaucoma
trabecularplasty
laser therapy for chronic open-angle glaucoma
hordeolum
localized, purulent, inflammatory staphyloccal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid (i.e., sty)
macular degeneration
progressive damage to the macula of the retina causing loss of central vision and blindness
nystagmus
repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes caused by brain tumors or disease of the inner ears
retinal detachment
trauma to the eye, head injuries, bleeding, scarring, or shrinkage of the vitreous humor can produce holes or tears resulting in THIS pathology
strabismus
abnormal deviation of the eye due to weakness of the muscle controlling the position of the eye
hypertropia
upward deviation of one eye
hypotropia
downward deviation of one eye
flourescein angiography
intravenous injection of a dye followed by serial photographs of the retina
ophthalmoscopy
visual examination of the interior of the eye
slit lamp microscopy
examination of anterior ocular structure under microscopic magnification
visual acuity test
clarity of vision is assessed with a Snellen chart
visual field test
measurement of the area within which objects are seen when eyes are fixed, looking straight ahead without movement of head
enucleation
removal of the entire eyeball
keratoplasty
surgical repair of the cornea (a.k.a., corneal transplant)
laser photocoagulation
intense, precisely focused light beam creates an inflammatory reaction that seals retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels
LASIK
use of an excimer laser to correct errors of refraction
scleral buckle
suture of a silicone band to the sclera over a detached portion of the retina; used to treat retinal detachment
pinna
projecting part, or flap, of the outer ear; auricle
auditory canal
part of the ear that leads from the pinna and is lined with numerous glands that produce a waxy substance; external auditory meatus
cerumen
waxy substance produced by auditory canal
tympanic membrane
the membrane between the outer and middle ear; eardrum
ossicles
three small bones that conduct sound waves through the middle ear
malleus; incus; stapes
three ossicles in order of vibration (separate these by semicolons and a space)
oval window
membrane that separates the middle from the inner ear
eustachian tube
canal leading from the middle ear to the pharynx that helps prevent damage to the eardrum and shock to the middle and inner ears; auditory tube
labyrinth
the inner ear; named such due to its maze-like structure
cochlea
bony, snail-shaped structure that contains auditory fluids through which vibrations travel
perilymph; endolymph
two types of auditory fluids contained within the cochlea (separate these by semicolons and a space)
organ of Corti
tiny hair cells within the cochlea that receive vibrations from auditory liquids and relay sound waves to auditory nerve fibers
auditory nerve fibers
transmits sound wave impulses to the auditory center of the cerebral cortex
vestibule
connects the cochlea to the semicircular canals
semicircular canals
contains endolymph and sensitive hair cells essential for the transmission of impulses that help maintain equilibrium
acoustic
pertaining to hearing (not auditory)
audiogram
record of a person's hearing ability
auditory
pertaining to hearing (not acoustic)
aural
pertaining to the ear
postauricular
pertaining to in back of the ear
cochlear
pertaining to the cochlea
mastoiditis
inflammation of the bone process extending downward behind the auditory canal
myringotomy
incision into the eardrum
ossiculoplasty
surgical repair of the malleus, incus, and stapes
otomycosis
fungal infection of the ear
otolaryngologist
medical doctor specializing in the ear, nose, and throat
otopyorrhea
pus-like discharge from ear
salpingopharyngeal
pertaining to the eustachian tubes and throat
stapedectomy
removal of the stapes
tympanoplasty
surgical reconstruction of the bones of the middle ear with reconnection of the eardrum to the oval window
vestibulocochlear
pertaining to the vestibule and cochlea
hyperacusis
abnormally acute sensitivity to sounds
audiometer
instrument used to measure hearing
macrotia
abnormally large ears
acoustic neuroma
benign tumor from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve in the brain
cholesteatoma
collection of skin cells and cholesterol in sac within middle ear
deafness
loss of the ability to hear
nerve deafness
hearing disorder resulting from the impairment of cochlea or auditory nerve
conductive deafness
hearing disorder resulting from impairment of the middle ear ossicles and membranes
Meniere disease
disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear with elevated endolymph pressure within cochlea and semicircular canals; symptoms include tinnitus, sensitivity to sound, loss of hearing, headache, and vertigo
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear
otosclerosis
hardening of the bony tissue of the middle ear causing fixation of the stapes bone and eventual deafness
tinnitus
sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in the ears
vertigo
sensation of irregular or whirling motion
audiometry
testing of the sense of hearing
cochlear implant procedure
surgical insertion of a device that allows sensorineural hearing-impaired persons to understand speech
ear thermometry
measurement of the temperature of the eardrum
otoscopy
visual examination of the ear canal
tuning fork test
test of ear conduction using a vibration source
Rinne test
tuning fork test where examiner places the base of the vibrating fork against mastoid bone
Weber test
tuning fork test where instrument is place on the center of the forehead
suppurative otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear with pus formation
serous otitis media
noninfectious inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of serous fluid
presbycusis
deafness due to old age