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58 terms

Psychology 100 Chapter 8 - Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

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Mental Image
mental representation of a previously stored sensory experience.
ex. picture in your mind your last vacation
Concept
a representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics
Ex. birds, rivers, beaches
Artificial Concept
formed by logical, specific rules
Ex. our state tree, state bird....
Natural Concepts/Prototypes
representation of the "best" or most typical example of a category.
ex. baseball is a prototype of the concept of sports
3 Step Goal to Problem Solving
1. Preparation
2. Production
3. Evaluation
Preparation
reviewing, separating facts and defining your goal.
Production
generating the possible solutions to your problem.
Algorithm
logical, step-by-step procedure with a guaranteed result
ex. cooking
Hierarchies
narrows possible alternatives but does not guarantee a solution
ex. shortcut
Working Backwards
starts with the solution
ex. starting in the center of a maze
Means-end Analysis
problem solver determines what measure would reduce the difference between the state and the goal. how will I get there? What will get me there fastest?
Creating Subgoals
breaking down complex goals into smaller goals
ex. baby steps
Problem Solving Heuristics
1. working backwards
2. means-end analysis
3. creating subgoals
Mental Sets
refusing to try new strategies
ex. the nine-dot problem
Functional Fixedness
using something only the way we think it was intended.
Ex. using your shoe to swat a fly, using a butter knife to cut a pill in half.
Confirmation Bias
where you seek confirmation of your beliefs or preexisting positions, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence.
Barriers to Problem Solving
1. mental sets
2. functional fixedness
3. confirmation bias
Availability Heuristic
judging the likelihood or probability of an event base on how readily available other instance of the even are in memory.
ex. what happens more in the US, murder or suicide?
answer suicide
Representativeness Heuristic
estimating the probability of something based on how well the circumstances match (or present) our previous prototype.
ex. which animal kills more people annually, pig or shark? answer pig
Creativity
ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way
1. originality
2. fluency
3. flexibility
Nature
what we are biologically born with or "prewired" to develop into. Chompsky's language acquisition device (LAD).
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
a little box in our heads that Chompsky believed we are all born with that enables a child to analyze language and extract the basic rules of grammar.
Nurture
how we develop as a result of the people and experiences we have in our lives. (environmental)
Phonemes
smallest unit of sound
ex. stretching out the word
Morphemes
smallest meaningful unit; combination of phonemes
ex. Un think able
Grammar
system of rules used to generate acceptable language, enabling communication
ex. they were in my psychology class vs. they was in my psychology class.
Syntax
putting words in the right order
ex. Yoda does not use good syntax :)
Semantics
using words to create meaning
ex. went out on a limb vs. humans have four limbs
Language
form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to specified rules.
Stages of Language Development
1. prelinguistic stage
2. linguistic stage
Prelinguistic Stage
crying (birth - 12 months)
cooing (2-3 months)
babbling (4-6 months)
Linguistic Stage
single-utterances (12 months) telegraphic speech, learning the rules of grammar (2-5 years)
Telegraphic Speech
child links several words to create short but intelligible sentences
ex. "me want cookie"
overgeneralizes
child applying the rules of grammar even to cases that are exceptions to the rule.
ex. "I goed to the zoo"
Nonverbal Language
gestures and body language. Meaning of these vary in different countries.
Intelligence
the ability to use thinking process to cope with the world.
Spearman said intelligence is a single factor, the "g" factor (general intelligence)
3 Part Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg models states that there are 3 separate and different aspects of intelligence.
1. Visual - show me
2. auditory - tell me
3. kinesthetic - let me do it
Fluid Intelligence
innate, inherited reasoning ability, memory and speed of information processing, independent from education and experience.
-tends to decline with age
Crystallized Intelligence
knowledge and skills gained through experience and education
-tends to increase over life span
Cattell's Theories
1. Fluid Intelligence
2. Crystallized Intelligence
Sternberg's Triarchic 3 part Theory
three separate and difference aspects of intelligence. Each part is learned, not the result of genetics. Each can be strengthened and improved
1. Analytical
2. Practical
3. Cognitive
Analytical
Good at evaluation judgement, and comparison
*all 3 of these tend to overlap and work together
Practical
Good at application, implementation, execution, and utilization
*all 3 of these tend to overlap and work together
Cognitive
Good at invention, coping with novelty, and imagination
*all 3 of these tend to overlap and work together
Gardner's Multiple Intelligence
believes people have many kinds of intelligence. People have different profiles of intelligence and are stronger in some area than others.
-linguistic, logical/mathematical, spatical, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal
-came up with 2 more.....Naturalistic and Spiritual/existential
Linguistic
word smart
ex. novelist, teacher
Logical/Mathematical
logic smart
scientist, engineer
Spatial
picture smart
engineer, architect
Bodily/Kinesthetic
body smart
ex. athletic, dancer
Musical
music smart
ex. singer, musician, composer
Interpersonal
people smart
ex. salesperson, manager, teacher
Intrapersonal
self smart
ex. increase success in almost all careers.
Naturalistic
attune to nature
ex. biologist, naturalist
Spiritual/Existential
attuned to the meaning of life and death
ex. pastor, preists
Individual Intelligence Tests
Stanford-Binet and Wechsler (both compute an IQ)
mental retardation = IQ of 70 or below
giftedness = IQ of 135 or above
Standardization
established the norms and uniform procedures for giving and scoring tests
Reliability
measure of the consistence and reproducibility of test scores over time
Validity
ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure