Stream flow coming from groundwater seepage into a stream
The lowest level to which a stream can erode its bed, commonly sea level
Formed when a meander loop is isolated from the main channel by erosion of the narrow neck of land between the upstream and downstream segments of the meander loop
Is the OUTSIDE bank of a stream, which is continually undergoing erosion.
Point Bar (deposition)
Is a depositional that accumulates on the INSIDE bend of streams.
Measure of the vertical distance that a stream channel falls over a given horizontal distance (SLOPE) -Expressed in ft/mile or m/km (Elevation change)/ (Horizontal surface)
Volume of water passing a fixed reference point per unit time Ex: cubic feet per second
If a cork thrown into a river travels 15ft in 5 seconds and the river has a width of 5ft and an average depth of 3ft, what is the rivers discharge? Velocity=Distance/Time Width X Depth X Velocity = Discharge
Rule of V's
Water flows away from the V's V-water is moving north ^-water is moving south
Is the average time interval between floods of a particular =(N+1)/M N=number of years M=rank of each flood event EXAMPLE: Records of a river have been kept for 49 years, what is the recurrence interval for the largest magnitude flood? RI=(49+1)/1=50 for the 2nd ranked flood? RI=(49+1)/2=25
Annual Probability of Recurrence
=(1/RI)x100 EXAMPLE: What is the annual probability of the 100 year flood in percent? =(1/100)x100=1% Of a 400 year flood in percent? =(1/400)x100=.25% Of a 500 year flood in percent? =(1/500)x100=.1%
Is a plot of stream discharge versus time -Show changes in stream discharge over time
Is steeper then the recession limb
Is less steep then the rising limb
Floods that affect large stream systems and large drainage basins -Longer lag time
Small, localized floods (sudden, locally intense rains and events such as dam failure) -Referred to as flash flooding -Short lag time
Groundwater (Pg. 231-248)
The percentage of void space in rock sediment, determines the volume of water in the zone of saturation -Expresses as percent
Is the ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it -Expresses as a rate - 2in/day
Permeability, Hydraulic Gradient
The rate or velocity of which groundwater flows is determined by the ____________ and the ___________ __________.
The slope at which groundwater flows
Unsaturated Zone (Zone of Aeration)
Zone near the surface, and the pore spaces are mostly filled with air
The line between the water-saturated soil and the soil that is not saturated with water (beneath the Earth's surface)
Saturated Zone (Zone of Saturation)
Below the water table and pore spaces are filled with water
Is the height of a column of water above sea level -Groundwater flows in the direction of decreasing hydraulic head
An aquifer that is overlain by a confining bed, which has significantly lower hydraulic conductivity than the aquifer. -Also called an Artesian Aquifer
An aquifer in which there are no confining beds between the zone of saturation and the ground surface. -There is a water table -Also called a Water Table Aquifer
Soluble Rocks like Carbonate rocks like limestone and dolomite
In what rock types does Karst Topography primarily develop?
Sinkholes, Caves, Residual Hills
Name three surface or underground features or landforms that are associated with Karst Topography?
The side of a dune that faces the wind and is less steep than the other side
The side of a dune that faces away from the wind direction and is more generally more steep than the other side
The steeper cliff on the leeward side of a dune and has an angle around 30 degrees
Type of dune that are characterized by horns that point UPWIND.
Type of dune that are characterized by horns that face DOWNWIND.
Type of dune that has a linear ridge that is PERPENDICULAR to the wind direction.
Type of dune that has a linear form that is PARALLEL to the wind direction
A water current that moves parallel to a shoreline due to waves approaching the shoreline at an angle and subsequently bending parallel to the shoreline as they enter shallow water.
When a longshore current passes a point and enters deeper water, it slows and some of its load is deposited forming a spit which is a ridge extending from the point in the direction of longshore drift. This is how you determine longshore current ___________ from the orientation of a spit.
Spit, Baymouth Bar
A ____ is an emergent ridge of sand and when it extends completely across the mouth of a bay, it is called a _________ ___.
A steep face irregular area, usually rocky and protrudes oceanward along a shoreline
Pillar-like, isolated mass of rock near a steep shoreline which has been detached from a sea cliff by wave erosion.
Deposit of sand that completely crosses the mouth of a bay
Sand ridges connecting islands to the shore
A shallow stretch of seawater partly or completely separated from the Ocean by a spit, baymouth bar, barrier island, or reef.
A narrow inlet between barrier islands that allows seawater to flow back and forth between the open ocean and the lagoons or sounds.
Low, narrow ridge of sand that parallels the shoreline and is separated from the main land my a lagoon and/or tidal flat
Inlet to the sea formed by flooding of a river mouth due to a rise in sea level or subsidence of the land
Typically have well-developed cliffs and are in areas where tectonic uplift of the coast occurs -Features: headlands wave-cut cliffs sea stacks
The shore is gradually subsiding with sand deposits and offshore barrier islands common -Features: Spit Baymouth Bar Tombolo Barrier Island Lagoon Beach
Terraces that are the result of continuing uplift coupled with sea level fluctuations.
Shorelines formed by erosional or depositional processes or tectonic processes Influenced by land phenomenon
Shorelines formed by erosion or deposition due to waves, tides, or currents Influenced by ocean phenomenon