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107 terms

The Language of Medicine, 9th ed. - Chapter 18

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glands
tissues that release chemicals inside and outside the body
hormones
chemical messengers that regulate the functions of the body
receptors
recognition sites on various target tissues within the body on which hormones act; initiate specific biological effects
endocrine glands
glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
exocrine glands
glands that send chemical substances via ducts to the outside of the body
pineal gland
gland that secretes melatonin
melatonin
hormone that functions to support the body's biological clock and helps to induce sleep
thymus gland
gland that produces thymosin
thymosin
hormone important to the development of the immune responses in newborns
prostaglandins
hormones that (1) stimulate the contractions of the uterus; (2) regulate body temperature; (3) help lower blood pressure
thyroid gland
gland that produces hormones that help control calcium levels and maintain a normal metabolism
tetraiodothyronine
hormone produced in the thyroid that helps regulate metabolism (i.e., T4)
triiodothyronine
hormone produced in the thyroid that helps regulate metabolism (i.e., T3)
calcitonin
hormone secreted by the thyroid when calcium levels are high in order to stimulate calcium to leave the blood and enter the bones
parathyroid glands
glands that produce hormones that regulate calcium levels in the blood
parathyroid hormone
hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that mobilizes calcium from the bones into the bloodstream when calcium levels are low
homeostasis
equilibrium or constancy in the internal environment
adrenal glands
glands that secrete corticosteroids and catecholamine hormones
adrenal cortex
part of the adrenal gland that secretes corticosteroids
adrenal medulla
part of the adrenal gland that secretes catecholamine
corticosteroids
complex chemicals derived from cholesterol
catecholamines
chemicals derived from amino acids
glucocorticoids
corticosteroids that have an important influence on the metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins and have a powerful anti-inflammatory effect
cortisol
hormone that helps regulate glucose, fat, and protein metabolism; raises blood glucose as part of a response to stress
cortisone
hormone useful in treating inflammatory conditions
mineralocorticoid
aldosterone is this type of hormone
aldosterone
hormone that regulates blood volume, blood pressure and electrolyte concentration by regulating the concentration of salts and helping the kidney reabsorb sodium and water
sex hormones
Produced in the adrenal cortex, androgens and estrogens are THESE types of hormones.
epinephrine
hormone that increases the heart rate and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes, and releases glucose from glycogen when body needs it for more energy
norepinephrine
hormone that constricts blood vessels to raise blood pressure
sympathomimetic agents
hormones that mimic, or copy, the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
pancreas
endocrine and exocrine gland that secretes insulin and digestive enzymes
islets of Langerhans
the endocrine tissue of the pancreas producing insulin and glucagon
insulin
hormone that lowers high-levels of blood sugar by helping it enter the body cells; also lowers blood sugar by causing the conversion of glucose to glycogen
glucagon
hormone that raises low-levels of blood sugar by acting on liver cells to promote conversion of glycogen back to glucose
pituitary gland
gland located at the base of the brain that regulates growth hormones and make hormones that controls several other glands
hypophysis
other name for the pituitary gland
adenohypophysis
the anterior lobe of the pituitary
neurohypophysis
the posterior lobe of the pituitary
growth hormone
hormone that stimulates protein synthesis that results in growth of bones, muscles and other tissues
somatotropin
other name for growth hormone
thyroid-stimulating hormone
hormone that stimulates the growth of the thyroid gland and secretion of thyroid hormones
thyrotropin
other name for thyroid-stimulating hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone
hormone that stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and increases its secretion of steroid hormones
adrenocorticotropin
other name for adrenocorticotropic hormone
gonadotropic hormones
hormones that stimulate secretions of the ovaries and testes
prolactin
hormone that stimulates breast development during pregnancy and sustains milk production after birth
antidiuretic hormone
hormone that stimulates the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules
oxytocin
hormone that stimulates uterine contractions and maintains labor during childbirth
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland
endemic goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland occurring in certain regions and peoples where there is a lack of iodine in the diet
adenomatous goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland with hyperplasia, nodules, and adenomas
hyperthyroidism
overactivity of the thyroid gland
Graves disease
most common form of hyperthyroidism; it is considered an autoimmune disorder and is characterized by an increased heart rate, higher body temperature, weight loss, and exophthalmos
thyrotoxicosis
overactivity of the thyroid gland; another term for hyperthyroidism
hypothyroidism
underactivity of the thyroid gland causing fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, and slow heart rate
myxedema
advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood caused by atrophy of the thyroid gland; skin becomes puffy due to the collection of mucus-like material under the skin
cretinism
extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to lack of normal physical and mental growth
thyroid carcinoma
cancer of the thyroid gland
hyperparathyroidism
excessive production of parathormone resulting in hypercalcemia and damage to the kidneys, heart, and bones
hypoparathyroidism
deficient production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia, muscle and nerve weakness, and muscle spasms
tetany
constant muscle contraction
adrenal virilism
excessive secretion of the adrenal androgens resulting in amenorrhea, hirsutism, and acne
Cushing syndrome
group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from adrenal cortex (e.g., obesity, moon-like face, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia and hypertension)
Addison disease
hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex resulting in malaise, weakness, muscle atrophy, and loss of fluids; thought to be due to autoimmune adrenalitis.
pheochromocytoma
benign tumor of the adrenal medulla resulting in the production of excess secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine
hyperinsulinism
excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia
diabetes mellitus
lack of insulin secretion or resistances of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
Type 1
form of diabetes mellitus that is an autoimmune disease; results in the destruction of beta islet cells and a complete deficiency of insulin on the body
Type 2
form of diabetes mellitus occurring in older age and with obesity; deficiency of insulin occurs with insulin resistance
insulin resistance
the resistance of target tissues to the action of insulin
metabolic syndrome
precursor to type 2 diabetes; associated with insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and excessive triglycerides in the blood
ketoacidosis
fats are improperly burned leading to an accumulation of ketones and acids in the body; a primary complication of type 1 diabetes
insulin shock
severe hypoglycemia caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise; primary complication of type 1 diabetes
acromegaly
hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities
gigantism
hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues
dwarfism
congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone
panhypopituitarism
deficiency of all pituitary hormones
syndrome of inappropriate ADH
excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone producing water retention in the body
diabetes insipidus
insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone causing the kidney tubules to fail to hold back needed water and salts; polyuria and polydipsia are two symptoms
fasting plasma glucose
measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours
glucose tolerance test
used to diagnose pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes
glycosylated hemoglobin test
measures long term glucose control
serum and urine tests
measurement of hormones, electrolytes, glucose, and other substances and indicators or endocrine function
thyroid function tests
measurement of T3, T4, and TSH
exophthalmometry
measurement of eyeball protrusion
radioactive iodine uptake scan
radioactive iodine is administered and its uptake is by thyroid is imaged to assess function
thyroid scan
scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes thyroid gland after intravenous administration of radioactive compound
adenectomy
removal of a gland
adrenopathy
disease condition of the adrenal gland
hypogonadism
condition of underactive sex glands
pancreatectomy
removal of the pancreas
parathyroidectomy
removal of the parathyroid glands
hypopituitarism
condition of an underactive pituitary gland
thyroiditis
inflammation of the thyroid
androgen
male hormone
hypercalcemia
excessive calcium in the blood
hypercalciuria
excessive calcium in urine
endocrinologist
doctor who specializes in disorders of the endocrine system
polydipsia
excessive thirst
estrogenic
pertaining to female
hypokalemia
deficiency of potassium in blood
hyponatremia
deficiency of sodium in blood
hypophysectomy
removal of the pituitary gland
glycosuria
condition of sugar in urine
euthyroid
normal thyroid
thyroxine
other name for tetraiodothyronine (T4)