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recognition sites on various target tissues within the body on which hormones act; initiate specific biological effects
hormones that (1) stimulate the contractions of the uterus; (2) regulate body temperature; (3) help lower blood pressure
gland that produces hormones that help control calcium levels and maintain a normal metabolism
hormone secreted by the thyroid when calcium levels are high in order to stimulate calcium to leave the blood and enter the bones
hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that mobilizes calcium from the bones into the bloodstream when calcium levels are low
corticosteroids that have an important influence on the metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins and have a powerful anti-inflammatory effect
hormone that helps regulate glucose, fat, and protein metabolism; raises blood glucose as part of a response to stress
hormone that regulates blood volume, blood pressure and electrolyte concentration by regulating the concentration of salts and helping the kidney reabsorb sodium and water
hormone that increases the heart rate and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes, and releases glucose from glycogen when body needs it for more energy
hormone that lowers high-levels of blood sugar by helping it enter the body cells; also lowers blood sugar by causing the conversion of glucose to glycogen
hormone that raises low-levels of blood sugar by acting on liver cells to promote conversion of glycogen back to glucose
gland located at the base of the brain that regulates growth hormones and make hormones that controls several other glands
hormone that stimulates protein synthesis that results in growth of bones, muscles and other tissues
hormone that stimulates the growth of the thyroid gland and secretion of thyroid hormones
hormone that stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and increases its secretion of steroid hormones
hormone that stimulates breast development during pregnancy and sustains milk production after birth
enlargement of the thyroid gland occurring in certain regions and peoples where there is a lack of iodine in the diet
most common form of hyperthyroidism; it is considered an autoimmune disorder and is characterized by an increased heart rate, higher body temperature, weight loss, and exophthalmos
underactivity of the thyroid gland causing fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, and slow heart rate
advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood caused by atrophy of the thyroid gland; skin becomes puffy due to the collection of mucus-like material under the skin
extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to lack of normal physical and mental growth
excessive production of parathormone resulting in hypercalcemia and damage to the kidneys, heart, and bones
deficient production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia, muscle and nerve weakness, and muscle spasms
excessive secretion of the adrenal androgens resulting in amenorrhea, hirsutism, and acne
group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from adrenal cortex (e.g., obesity, moon-like face, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia and hypertension)
hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex resulting in malaise, weakness, muscle atrophy, and loss of fluids; thought to be due to autoimmune adrenalitis.
benign tumor of the adrenal medulla resulting in the production of excess secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine
lack of insulin secretion or resistances of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
form of diabetes mellitus that is an autoimmune disease; results in the destruction of beta islet cells and a complete deficiency of insulin on the body
form of diabetes mellitus occurring in older age and with obesity; deficiency of insulin occurs with insulin resistance
precursor to type 2 diabetes; associated with insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and excessive triglycerides in the blood
fats are improperly burned leading to an accumulation of ketones and acids in the body; a primary complication of type 1 diabetes
severe hypoglycemia caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise; primary complication of type 1 diabetes
hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities
hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues
syndrome of inappropriate ADH
excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone producing water retention in the body
insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone causing the kidney tubules to fail to hold back needed water and salts; polyuria and polydipsia are two symptoms
fasting plasma glucose
measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours
serum and urine tests
measurement of hormones, electrolytes, glucose, and other substances and indicators or endocrine function
radioactive iodine uptake scan
radioactive iodine is administered and its uptake is by thyroid is imaged to assess function
scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes thyroid gland after intravenous administration of radioactive compound
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