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tissues that release chemicals inside and outside the body


chemical messengers that regulate the functions of the body


recognition sites on various target tissues within the body on which hormones act; initiate specific biological effects

endocrine glands

glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

exocrine glands

glands that send chemical substances via ducts to the outside of the body

pineal gland

gland that secretes melatonin


hormone that functions to support the body's biological clock and helps to induce sleep

thymus gland

gland that produces thymosin


hormone important to the development of the immune responses in newborns


hormones that (1) stimulate the contractions of the uterus; (2) regulate body temperature; (3) help lower blood pressure

thyroid gland

gland that produces hormones that help control calcium levels and maintain a normal metabolism


hormone produced in the thyroid that helps regulate metabolism (i.e., T4)


hormone produced in the thyroid that helps regulate metabolism (i.e., T3)


hormone secreted by the thyroid when calcium levels are high in order to stimulate calcium to leave the blood and enter the bones

parathyroid glands

glands that produce hormones that regulate calcium levels in the blood

parathyroid hormone

hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that mobilizes calcium from the bones into the bloodstream when calcium levels are low


equilibrium or constancy in the internal environment

adrenal glands

glands that secrete corticosteroids and catecholamine hormones

adrenal cortex

part of the adrenal gland that secretes corticosteroids

adrenal medulla

part of the adrenal gland that secretes catecholamine


complex chemicals derived from cholesterol


chemicals derived from amino acids


corticosteroids that have an important influence on the metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins and have a powerful anti-inflammatory effect


hormone that helps regulate glucose, fat, and protein metabolism; raises blood glucose as part of a response to stress


hormone useful in treating inflammatory conditions


aldosterone is this type of hormone


hormone that regulates blood volume, blood pressure and electrolyte concentration by regulating the concentration of salts and helping the kidney reabsorb sodium and water

sex hormones

Produced in the adrenal cortex, androgens and estrogens are THESE types of hormones.


hormone that increases the heart rate and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes, and releases glucose from glycogen when body needs it for more energy


hormone that constricts blood vessels to raise blood pressure

sympathomimetic agents

hormones that mimic, or copy, the actions of the sympathetic nervous system


endocrine and exocrine gland that secretes insulin and digestive enzymes

islets of Langerhans

the endocrine tissue of the pancreas producing insulin and glucagon


hormone that lowers high-levels of blood sugar by helping it enter the body cells; also lowers blood sugar by causing the conversion of glucose to glycogen


hormone that raises low-levels of blood sugar by acting on liver cells to promote conversion of glycogen back to glucose

pituitary gland

gland located at the base of the brain that regulates growth hormones and make hormones that controls several other glands


other name for the pituitary gland


the anterior lobe of the pituitary


the posterior lobe of the pituitary

growth hormone

hormone that stimulates protein synthesis that results in growth of bones, muscles and other tissues


other name for growth hormone

thyroid-stimulating hormone

hormone that stimulates the growth of the thyroid gland and secretion of thyroid hormones


other name for thyroid-stimulating hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

hormone that stimulates the growth of the adrenal cortex and increases its secretion of steroid hormones


other name for adrenocorticotropic hormone

gonadotropic hormones

hormones that stimulate secretions of the ovaries and testes


hormone that stimulates breast development during pregnancy and sustains milk production after birth

antidiuretic hormone

hormone that stimulates the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules


hormone that stimulates uterine contractions and maintains labor during childbirth


enlargement of the thyroid gland

endemic goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland occurring in certain regions and peoples where there is a lack of iodine in the diet

adenomatous goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland with hyperplasia, nodules, and adenomas


overactivity of the thyroid gland

Graves disease

most common form of hyperthyroidism; it is considered an autoimmune disorder and is characterized by an increased heart rate, higher body temperature, weight loss, and exophthalmos


overactivity of the thyroid gland; another term for hyperthyroidism


underactivity of the thyroid gland causing fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, and slow heart rate


advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood caused by atrophy of the thyroid gland; skin becomes puffy due to the collection of mucus-like material under the skin


extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to lack of normal physical and mental growth

thyroid carcinoma

cancer of the thyroid gland


excessive production of parathormone resulting in hypercalcemia and damage to the kidneys, heart, and bones


deficient production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia, muscle and nerve weakness, and muscle spasms


constant muscle contraction

adrenal virilism

excessive secretion of the adrenal androgens resulting in amenorrhea, hirsutism, and acne

Cushing syndrome

group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from adrenal cortex (e.g., obesity, moon-like face, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia and hypertension)

Addison disease

hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex resulting in malaise, weakness, muscle atrophy, and loss of fluids; thought to be due to autoimmune adrenalitis.


benign tumor of the adrenal medulla resulting in the production of excess secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine


excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia

diabetes mellitus

lack of insulin secretion or resistances of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells

Type 1

form of diabetes mellitus that is an autoimmune disease; results in the destruction of beta islet cells and a complete deficiency of insulin on the body

Type 2

form of diabetes mellitus occurring in older age and with obesity; deficiency of insulin occurs with insulin resistance

insulin resistance

the resistance of target tissues to the action of insulin

metabolic syndrome

precursor to type 2 diabetes; associated with insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and excessive triglycerides in the blood


fats are improperly burned leading to an accumulation of ketones and acids in the body; a primary complication of type 1 diabetes

insulin shock

severe hypoglycemia caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise; primary complication of type 1 diabetes


hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities


hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues


congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone


deficiency of all pituitary hormones

syndrome of inappropriate ADH

excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone producing water retention in the body

diabetes insipidus

insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone causing the kidney tubules to fail to hold back needed water and salts; polyuria and polydipsia are two symptoms

fasting plasma glucose

measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours

glucose tolerance test

used to diagnose pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes

glycosylated hemoglobin test

measures long term glucose control

serum and urine tests

measurement of hormones, electrolytes, glucose, and other substances and indicators or endocrine function

thyroid function tests

measurement of T3, T4, and TSH


measurement of eyeball protrusion

radioactive iodine uptake scan

radioactive iodine is administered and its uptake is by thyroid is imaged to assess function

thyroid scan

scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes thyroid gland after intravenous administration of radioactive compound


removal of a gland


disease condition of the adrenal gland


condition of underactive sex glands


removal of the pancreas


removal of the parathyroid glands


condition of an underactive pituitary gland


inflammation of the thyroid


male hormone


excessive calcium in the blood


excessive calcium in urine


doctor who specializes in disorders of the endocrine system


excessive thirst


pertaining to female


deficiency of potassium in blood


deficiency of sodium in blood


removal of the pituitary gland


condition of sugar in urine


normal thyroid


other name for tetraiodothyronine (T4)

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