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Chapter 53: Integumentary system function, Assessment, and Therapeutic Measures
Understanding Medical-Surgical Nursing
Terms in this set (48)
What is the innermost epidermal layer of the skin (pg.1144)?
Where does mitosis occurs to produce new epidermal cells (pg.1144)?
During what stage does callus formation occurs (pg.1144)?
What is the outermost layer of the epidermal (pg.1144)?
What kind of cells makes up the stratum corneum (pg.1144)?
Many layers of dead, keratinized cells
What is the purpose of the stratum corneum (pg.1144)?
an effective barrier against pathogens and most chemicals
What is a result of loss of large portions of the stratum corneum (pg.1144)?
increase risk for infection and dehydration
Where are melanocytes located (pg.1144)?
the lower epidermis
What is capable of damaging the DNA in cells causing mutations that can result in malignancy (pg.1144)?
UV rays, which are mutagenic
What cell is a type of macrophage that presents foreign antigens to immune cells (pg.1144)?
Epidermis, which are langerhans cells
What gives the skin its strength as an organ (pg.1144)?
Extensive collagen fibers in the dermis
What are the purpose of the subcutaneous layer of the skin (pg.1144)?
Cushions, insulates, and stores energy as triglyceride
What tissue contains abundant leukocytes that destroys pathogens that enter through broken skin (pg.1144)?
Where does the sensory receptors for the cutaneous senses located (pg.1145)?
Receptors for heat, cold and pain are what kind of nerve endings (pg.1145)?
Free nerve endings
What nerve endings are specific for touch and pressure (pg.1145)?
How does vitamin D formats from the skin (pg.1145)?
From cholesterol when the skin is exposed to the UV rays of the sun and excretion of small amounts of ammonia, urea and sodium chloride in sweat.
What part of the hair extends above the skin's surface (pg.1146)?
What part of the hair lies within a sheath of epidermis and have a rich nerve and blood supply (pg.1146)?
What part of the hair is buried in the dermis, an is the lowest part of the hair where growth occurs (pg.1146)?
Bulb or root
What part of the hair is at the base of the hair in a cluster of connective tissues and blood vessels which nourishes each hair (pg.1146)?
What is attached to each hair follicle as a small bundle of smooth muscles (pg.1146)?
What causes the arrector pilli to contract (pg.1146)?
Cold temperatures, or emotions such as fear, causes the muscle to contract. When this muscle contracts, the hair becomes more upright.
What gland opens into a hair follicle and secrete an oily substance (pg.1146)?
What gland produces sweat (pg.1146)?
What are the main techniques used in physical examination of the skin (PG.1148)?
Inspection and palpation
What are the color ranges for white skinned patients (pg.1148)?
Light to ruddy pink or olive
Why do the skin in older patients loses some of it's elasticity and moisture (PG.1148)?
There is decrease activity of sebaceous and sweat glands
Define pallor (pg.1148)
Paleness or decrease in color
What medical conditions may cause pallor of the skin (PG.1149)?
Vasoconstriction, decreased blood flow, or decreased hemoglobin levels from anemia
What are the best ways to assess for pallor (pg.1149)?
On the face, conjunctivae, nailbeds and lips.
How can you tell if a dark skinned person is pale (pg.1149)?
The mucous membranes have an ash-gray color, lips and nailsbed appear paler than usual, and the skin appears yellow brown to ash gray.
What can cause erythema (pg.1149)?
vasodilation or increased blood flow to the skin from fever or inflammation
What is a indication of cyanosis (pg.1149)?
cardiac pulmonary, or perfusion problem
define lesion (pg.1149)
any change or injury to tissue
what clues does moisture provides in an assessment (pg.1149)?
levels of hydration
Define petechia (pg.1149)
reddish-purple spots that are smaller than 0.5mm in diameter
a bruise that changes color from blue black to greenish brown or yellow over time
Define macule lesion (pg.1150)
flat, nonpalpable change in skin color
Define Papule lesion (pg.1150)
palpable solid raised lesion that is less than 1 cm in diameter due to epidermis (ringworm, wart, or mole)
Define nodule lesion (pg.1150)
solid elevated lesion that is larger and deeper (fibroma, intradermal nevi)
Define vesicle (pg.1150)
a small, blister like raised area of the skin (poison ivy, shingles, chickenpox)
Define bulla (pg.1150)
a fluid-filled vesicle or blister (burns, contact dermatitis)
Define pustule (pg.1150)
small elevation of skin or vesicle contains lymph or pus (scabies, acne)
Define wheal (pg.1150)
round, elevation of the skin (hives, insect bites)
Define excoriation (pg.1150)
traumatized abrasions of the epidermis (scabies, dermatitis, burns)
What is the purpose of wood light examination (pg.1153)?
the use of UV rays to detect fluorescent materials in the skin and hair present in certain diseases such as ringworm
What is the purpose of balneotherapy (pg.1153)?
useful in applying medications to large areas of the skin as well as for debridement or removing old crusts
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