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Unit 1 pt 11

Terms in this set (101)

The M phase of the cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis, begins with prophase, the first appearance of chromosomes. As the phase proceeds, each chromosome is seen as identical halves called chromatids, which lie together and are attached by a spindle site called a centromere. (The two chromatids of each chromosome, which are genetically identical, are
sometimes called sister chromatids.) The nuclear membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, disappears. Spindle fibers are microtubules formed in the cytoplasm. They radiate from two centrioles located at opposite poles of the cell and pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell, beginning the metaphase. Next, the centromeres become aligned in the middle of the spindle, which is called the equatorial plate (or metaphase plate) of the cell. In this stage, chromosomes are easiest to observe microscopically because they are highly condensed and arranged in a relatively organized fashion.

The _ begins when the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart. The spindle fibers shorten, causing the sister chromatids to be pulled, centromere first, toward opposite sides of the cell. With sister chromatid separation, each is considered to be a chromosome. Thus the cell has 92 chromosomes during this stage. By the end of the anaphase, there are 46 chromosomes lying at each side of the cell. Barring mitotic errors, each of the two groups of 46 chromosomes is identical to the original 46 chromosomes present at the start of the cell cycle.
The M phase of the cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis, begins with prophase, the first appearance of chromosomes. As the phase proceeds, each chromosome is seen as identical halves called chromatids, which lie together and are attached by a spindle site called a centromere. (The two chromatids of each chromosome, which are genetically identical, are
sometimes called sister chromatids.) The nuclear membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, disappears. Spindle fibers are microtubules formed in the cytoplasm. They radiate from two centrioles located at opposite poles of the cell and pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell, beginning the metaphase. Next, the centromeres become aligned in the middle of the spindle, which is called the equatorial plate (or metaphase plate) of the cell. In this stage, chromosomes are easiest to observe microscopically because they are highly condensed and arranged in a relatively organized fashion.

The anaphase begins when the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart. The spindle fibers shorten, causing the sister chromatids to be pulled, centromere first, toward opposite sides of the cell. With sister chromatid separation, each is considered to be a chromosome. Thus the cell has _ chromosomes during this stage. By the end of the anaphase, there are _ chromosomes lying at each side of the cell. Barring mitotic errors, each of the two groups of 46 chromosomes is identical to the original 46 chromosomes present at the start of the cell cycle.
The M phase of the cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis, begins with prophase, the first appearance of chromosomes. As the phase proceeds, each chromosome is seen as identical halves called chromatids, which lie together and are attached by a spindle site called a centromere. (The two chromatids of each chromosome, which are genetically identical, are
sometimes called sister chromatids.) The nuclear membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, disappears. Spindle fibers are microtubules formed in the cytoplasm. They radiate from two centrioles located at opposite poles of the cell and pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell, beginning the metaphase. Next, the centromeres become aligned in the middle of the spindle, which is called the equatorial plate (or metaphase plate) of the cell. In this stage, chromosomes are easiest to observe microscopically because they are highly condensed and arranged in a relatively organized fashion.

The anaphase begins when the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart. The spindle fibers shorten, causing the sister chromatids to be pulled, centromere first, toward opposite sides of the cell. With sister chromatid separation, each is considered to be a chromosome. Thus the cell has 92 chromosomes during this stage. By the end of the anaphase, there are 46 chromosomes lying at each side of the cell. Barring mitotic errors, each of the two groups of 46 chromosomes is identical to the original 46 chromosomes present at the start of the cell cycle.

During the _, the final stage, a new nuclear membrane is formed around each group of 46 chromosomes, the spindle fibers disappear, and the chromosomes begin to uncoil.
The M phase of the cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis, begins with prophase, the first appearance of chromosomes. As the phase proceeds, each chromosome is seen as identical halves called chromatids, which lie together and are attached by a spindle site called a centromere. (The two chromatids of each chromosome, which are genetically identical, are
sometimes called sister chromatids.) The nuclear membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, disappears. Spindle fibers are microtubules formed in the cytoplasm. They radiate from two centrioles located at opposite poles of the cell and pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell, beginning the metaphase. Next, the centromeres become aligned in the middle of the spindle, which is called the equatorial plate (or metaphase plate) of the cell. In this stage, chromosomes are easiest to observe microscopically because they are highly condensed and arranged in a relatively organized fashion.

The anaphase begins when the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart. The spindle fibers shorten, causing the sister chromatids to be pulled, centromere first, toward opposite sides of the cell. With sister chromatid separation, each is considered to be a chromosome. Thus the cell has 92 chromosomes during this stage. By the end of the anaphase, there are 46 chromosomes lying at each side of the cell. Barring mitotic errors, each of the two groups of 46 chromosomes is identical to the original 46 chromosomes present at the start of the cell cycle.

During the telophase, the final stage, (4
The M phase of the cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis, begins with prophase, the first appearance of chromosomes. As the phase proceeds, each chromosome is seen as identical halves called chromatids, which lie together and are attached by a spindle site called a centromere. (The two chromatids of each chromosome, which are genetically identical, are
sometimes called sister chromatids.) The nuclear membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, disappears. Spindle fibers are microtubules formed in the cytoplasm. They radiate from two centrioles located at opposite poles of the cell and pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell, beginning the metaphase. Next, the centromeres become aligned in the middle of the spindle, which is called the equatorial plate (or metaphase plate) of the cell. In this stage, chromosomes are easiest to observe microscopically because they are highly condensed and arranged in a relatively organized fashion.

The anaphase begins when the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart. The spindle fibers shorten, causing the sister chromatids to be pulled, centromere first, toward opposite sides of the cell. With sister chromatid separation, each is considered to be a chromosome. Thus the cell has 92 chromosomes during this stage. By the end of the anaphase, there are 46 chromosomes lying at each side of the cell. Barring mitotic errors, each of the two groups of 46 chromosomes is identical to the original 46 chromosomes present at the start of the cell cycle.

During the telophase, the final stage, a new nuclear membrane is formed around each group of 46 chromosomes, the spindle fibers disappear, and the chromosomes begin to uncoil. _ causes the cytoplasm to divide into almost equal parts during this phase. At the end of the telophase, two identical diploid cells, called daughter cells, have been formed from the original cell.
The M phase of the cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis, begins with prophase, the first appearance of chromosomes. As the phase proceeds, each chromosome is seen as identical halves called chromatids, which lie together and are attached by a spindle site called a centromere. (The two chromatids of each chromosome, which are genetically identical, are
sometimes called sister chromatids.) The nuclear membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, disappears. Spindle fibers are microtubules formed in the cytoplasm. They radiate from two centrioles located at opposite poles of the cell and pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell, beginning the metaphase. Next, the centromeres become aligned in the middle of the spindle, which is called the equatorial plate (or metaphase plate) of the cell. In this stage, chromosomes are easiest to observe microscopically because they are highly condensed and arranged in a relatively organized fashion.

The anaphase begins when the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart. The spindle fibers shorten, causing the sister chromatids to be pulled, centromere first, toward opposite sides of the cell. With sister chromatid separation, each is considered to be a chromosome. Thus the cell has 92 chromosomes during this stage. By the end of the anaphase, there are 46 chromosomes lying at each side of the cell. Barring mitotic errors, each of the two groups of 46 chromosomes is identical to the original 46 chromosomes present at the start of the cell cycle.

During the telophase, the final stage, a new nuclear membrane is formed around each group of 46 chromosomes, the spindle fibers disappear, and the chromosomes begin to uncoil. Cytokinesis causes the cytoplasm to divide into almost equal parts during this phase. At the end of the telophase, two identical diploid cells, called daughter cells, have been formed from the original cell.
The M phase of the cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis, begins with prophase, the first appearance of chromosomes. As the phase proceeds, each chromosome is seen as identical halves called chromatids, which lie together and are attached by a spindle site called a centromere. (The two chromatids of each chromosome, which are genetically identical, are
sometimes called sister chromatids.) The nuclear membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, disappears. Spindle fibers are microtubules formed in the cytoplasm. They radiate from two centrioles located at opposite poles of the cell and pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell, beginning the metaphase. Next, the centromeres become aligned in the middle of the spindle, which is called the equatorial plate (or metaphase plate) of the cell. In this stage, chromosomes are easiest to observe microscopically because they are highly condensed and arranged in a relatively organized fashion.

The anaphase begins when the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart. The spindle fibers shorten, causing the sister chromatids to be pulled, centromere first, toward opposite sides of the cell. With sister chromatid separation, each is considered to be a chromosome. Thus the cell has 92 chromosomes during this stage. By the end of the anaphase, there are 46 chromosomes lying at each side of the cell. Barring mitotic errors, each of the two groups of 46 chromosomes is identical to the original 46 chromosomes present at the start of the cell cycle.

During the telophase, the final stage, a new nuclear membrane is formed around each group of 46 chromosomes, the spindle fibers disappear, and the chromosomes begin to uncoil. Cytokinesis causes the cytoplasm to divide into almost equal parts during this phase. At the end of the telophase, two identical diploid cells, called daughter cells, have been formed from the original cell.
The M phase of the cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis, begins with prophase, the first appearance of chromosomes. As the phase proceeds, each chromosome is seen as identical halves called chromatids, which lie together and are attached by a spindle site called a centromere. (The two chromatids of each chromosome, which are genetically identical, are
sometimes called sister chromatids.) The nuclear membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, disappears. Spindle fibers are microtubules formed in the cytoplasm. They radiate from two centrioles located at opposite poles of the cell and pull the chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell, beginning the metaphase. Next, the centromeres become aligned in the middle of the spindle, which is called the equatorial plate (or metaphase plate) of the cell. In this stage, chromosomes are easiest to observe microscopically because they are highly condensed and arranged in a relatively organized fashion.

The anaphase begins when the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart. The spindle fibers shorten, causing the sister chromatids to be pulled, centromere first, toward opposite sides of the cell. With sister chromatid separation, each is considered to be a chromosome. Thus the cell has 92 chromosomes during this stage. By the end of the anaphase, there are 46 chromosomes lying at each side of the cell. Barring mitotic errors, each of the two groups of 46 chromosomes is identical to the original 46 chromosomes present at the start of the cell cycle.

During the telophase, the final stage, a new nuclear membrane is formed around each group of 46 chromosomes, the spindle fibers disappear, and the chromosomes begin to uncoil. Cytokinesis causes the cytoplasm to divide into almost equal parts during this phase. At the end of the telophase, two identical diploid cells, called _, have been formed from the original cell.