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135 terms

The Language of Medicine, 9th ed. - Chapter 16

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integumentary system
the skin and its accessory structures (hair, nails, and glands)
epidermis
the outermost, totally cellular layer of the skin containing keratin
dermis
dense, fibrous connective tissue layer of the skin composed of collagen; contains blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibers, hair follicles, and glands
subcutaneous layer
thick, fat-containing tissue layer important for the protection of tissues, heat insulation, and energy storage
squamous epithelium
flat, scale-like cells composing the epidermis
basal layer
deepest layer of the epithelium
stratum corneum
the most superficial layer of the epidermis
keratin
hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails
melanocytes
cells contained within the basal layer; form and contain a brown-black pigment
melanin
black-brown skin pigment vital for the protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation
albino
individuals who are incapable of forming melanin; skin and hair are white
collagen
fibrous protein material found in bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and skin; supports and protects blood and nerve networks in the dermis
adipocytes
fat cells
keratin
hard protein
hair follicles
sacs within which each hair fiber grows
nails
hard keratin plates covering the dorsal surface of fingers and toes
hair
fiber composed of a tightly fused meshwork of cells filled with keratin
lunula
semilunar whitish region at the base of the nail plate
cuticle
narrow band of epidermis at the base and sides of the nail plate
paronychium
soft tissue surrounding the nail border
onycholysis
loosening of the nail plate with separation from the nail bed
sebaceous gland
oil-secreting gland in the dermis associated with hair follicles
sweat glands
exocrine glands that allow watery secretions to leave the body
sebum
an oily secretion
sweat
a watery secretion
eccrine sweat gland
most numerous sweat-producing exocrine gland in the skin
apocrine sweat gland
one of the large dermal exocrine glands located in the axilla and gential areas; responsible for body odor
adipose
pertaining to fat
albinism
condition where body is incapable of forming melanin; skin and hair are white
causalgia
burning pain
electrocautery
an instrument containing a needle or blade used during surgery to burn through tissue by means of electrical current
subcutaneous
pertaining to under the skin
dermatitis
inflammation of the skin
dermatoplasty
skin is transplanted to a body surface damaged by disease or injury
dermabrasion
the scraping away of skin
epidermolysis
loosening of the epidermis with the development of large blisters
diaphoresis
sweating
erythema
flushing; widespread redness of skin
erythematous
rash that manifests with a slapped cheek appearance on the face and elsewhere
anhidrosis
abnormal condition of no sweat
ichthyosis
hereditary condition where the skin is dry, rough and scaly because of a defect in keratinization
nevus
pigmented lesion of the skin; mole
lipoma
benign fat tumor
liposuction
removal of subcutaneous fat tissue through a tube that is introduced into the fatty area via a small incision
mycosis
fungal infection
onychomycosis
fungal infection of the nails
paronychia
inflammation and swelling of the soft tissue around the nail
dermatophytosis
fungal infection of the skin
pilosebaceous
pertaining to the hair follicle and sebaceous gland
pyoderma
pus within the skin
rhytidectomy
reconstructive plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and signs of aging skin
seborrhea
excessive secretion from sebaceous glands
seborrheic dermatitis
dandruff
steatoma
cystic collection of sebum that forms in a sebaceous gland and can become infected
trichomycosis
fungal infection of the hair
subungual
pertaining to under the nail
xanthoma
nodules develop under the skin owing to excess lipid deposits and can be associated with high cholesterol level
xeroderma
very dry skin
lesion
area of abnormal tissue
crust
collection of dried serum and cellular debris
cyst
thick-walled closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid fluid
erosion
wearing away or loss or epidermis
fissure
groove or crack-like sore
macule
flat lesion measuring less than 1 cm in diameter
nodule
solid, round or oval elevated lesion 1 cm or more in diameter
papule
small (less than 1 cm in diameter), solid elevation of the skin
polyp
growth extending from the surface of mucous membrane
pilonidal cyst
cyst found over the sacral area of the back in the midline and contains hairs
sebaceous cyst
collection of yellowish, cheesy oily secretion commonly found on the scalp, vulva, and scrotum
pustule
small collection of pus on the skin
ulcer
open sore on the skin or mucous membranes (deeper than an erosion)
decubitus ulcers
open sores caused by pressure that results from lying in one position
vesicle
small collection of clear fluid; blister
wheal
smooth, swollen papule or plaque that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin
alopecia
absence of hair from areas where it normally grows
alopecia areata
autoimmune disease in which hair falls out in patches without scarring or inflammation
ecchymosis
bluish-purplish mark on the skin; bruise
petechia
small, pinpoint hemorrhage
pruritus
itching
urticaria
acute allergic reaction in which red, round wheals develop in the skin
acne
chronic papular and pustular eruption of the skin with increase production of sebum
acne vulgaris
papular and pustular eruptions caused by the build up of sebum and keratin in the pores of the skin
open comedo
sebum plug partially blocking the pore; blackhead
closed comedo
sebum plug completely blocking the pore; whitehead
burns
injury to tissues caused by heat contact
first-degree burns
burns resulting in superficial epidermal lesions, erythema, hyperesthesia, and no blisters
second-degree burns
burns resulting in epidermal and dermal lesions, erythema, blisters, and hyperesthesia
third-degree burns
burns resulting in destruction of the epidermis and dermis and damage to the subcutaneous layer
cellulitis
diffuse, acute infection of the skin marked by local heat, redness, pain, and swelling
eczema
inflammatory skin disease with erythematous, papulovesicular lesions; atopic dermatitis
exanthematous viral disease
rash of the skin due to a viral infection
rubella
German measles
rubeola
measles
varicella
chicken pox
gangrene
death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply
impetigo
bacterial inflammatory skin disease characterized by vesicles, pustules, and crusted-over lesions
psoriasis
chronic, recurrent dermatosis marked by itchy, scaly, red plaques covered by silvery gray scales
scabies
contagious, parasitic infection of the skin with intense pruritus
scleroderma
chronic progressive disease of the skin and internal organs with hardening and shrinking of connective tissue
systemic lupus erythematosus
chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in skin, joints, and internal organs
discoid lupus erythematosus
chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease resulting in photosensitive, scaling, plaque-like, superficial eruptions of the skin
tinea
infection of the skin caused by a fungus
tinea corporis
ringworm
tinea pedis
athlete's foot
tinea barbae
fungus of the skin under the beard
tinea capitis
fungus on the scalp
tinea unguium
fungus affecting the nails
vitiligo
loss of pigment in areas of the skin
leukoderma
white patches on the skin
callus
increased growth of cells in the keratin layer of the epidermis caused by pressure or friction
keloid
hypertrophied, thickened scar developing after trauma or surgical incision
cicatrix
normal scar
keratosis
thickened and rough lesion of the epidermis associated with aging or skin damage
actinic keratosis
rough lesion caused by long-term ultraviolet light exposure; considered a precancerous lesion
leukoplakia
white, thickened patches on mucous membrane tissue of the tongue or cheek
dysplastic nevi
moles that have atypical cells and may progress to form melanoma
verruca
epidermal growth caused by a virus (wart)
basal cell carcinoma
malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis
squamous cell carcinoma
malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells in the epidermis
malignant melanoma
cancerous growth composed of melanocytes
Kaposi sarcoma
malignant, vascular, neoplastic growth characterized by cutaneous nodules
bacterial analyses
samples of skin are examined for presence of microorganisms
purulent
pus-filled
exudate
fluid that accumulates
fungal tests
scrapings from skin lesions, hair specimens, or nail clippings are sent to a laboratory for culture and microscopic examination
cryosurgery
use of subfreezing temperature via liquid nitrogen application to destroy tissue
curettage
use of sharp dermal instrument to scrape away a skin lesion
electrodessication
tissue is destroyed by burning with an electric spark
Mohs micrographic surgery
thin layers of malignant tissue are removed, and each is examined under a microscope to check for adequate extent of the resection
skin biopsy
suspected malignant skin lesions are removed and examined microscopically by a pathologist
punch biopsy
surgical instrument removes a core of tissue by rotation of sharp, surgical edge
shave biopsy
tissue is excised using a cut parallel to the surface of the surrounding skin
skin test
substances are injected intradermally or applied to the skin, and results are observed
patch test
an allergen-treated piece of gauze or filter paper is applied to the skin to diagnose allergies
scratch test
type of allergen test where several scratches are made in the skin and a very minute amount of test material is inserted into the scratches