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World Civilization to 1715 Summer 2011 Butler Community College Final Review

1.1 The Greek term "Mesopotamia" refers to

1.1 lands between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers.

1.2 According to the text, the most successful feature of the Neolithic period was the development of

1.2 towns

1.3 The earliest Sumerian writings

1.3 were pictographs in which each sign pictured an object

1.4 Hammurabi's code was designed to

1.4 regulate the relationships among his people.

1.5 Akhenaten's interest in monotheism failed in Egypt because

1.5 it was imposed on people and enforced by intolerance.

1.6 The Phoenicians' greatest cultural achievement was the

1.6 creation of an alphabet.

1.7 In the history of Hebrews, they

1.7 made particular efforts to retain their unique religion and culture.

1.8 The Persian Empire was founded by _____ the Great.

1.8 Cyrus

1.9 All of the following statements regarding Zoroastrianism are true except

1.9 its influence ended with the fall of the Persian empire.

1.10 According to the text, the backbone of the Persian Empire's communication network was

1.10 the Royal Road

2.1 The earliest Indian civilization centered on a great river, the

2.1 Indus

2.2 In modern southern India the major languages are

2.2 Dravidians

2.3 The term asceticism refers to

2.3 the practice of self-discipline and self-denial

2.4 The Upanishads

2.4 stabilized Indian society by encouraging the poor and oppressed to work hard and dutifully.

2.5 Mahayana Buddhism is referred to as "Great Vehicle" because

2.5 it provides a means for laypeople as well as monastics to practice Buddhism

2.6 The Hindu concept of dharma is

2.6 a guide for an ethical and moral life

2.7 The Bhagavad Gita

2.7 urges action in this world

2.8 Ashoka's rule was influenced by Buddhism in that he

2.8 appointed officials to oversee the moral welfare of the realm.

2.9 The earliest precisely dated documents of Indian history

2.9 stone pillars erected by Ashoka.

2.10 During the Kushan period, Indian art was strongly influenced by the

2.10 Greeks.

3.1 The first Chinese Dynasty to have writing, cities, and metalworking was

3.1 Shang

3.2 The crop well suited to the Yellow River (north) basin was

3.2 wheat/millet

3.3 Northern China, compared to southern China

3.3 receives less rain

3.4 In Yangzi River (south) basin, the predominant agricultural activity was

3.4 rice farming

3.5 The written Chinese language

3.5 was a major factor in social, cultural, and political unity

3.6 In Chinese logographic system of writing

3.6 each word was represented by a single symbol

3.7 A ruler retains the Mandate of Heaven as long as he

3.7 rules in the best interests of the people

3.8 According to Confucius, the basic unit of society was the

3.8 family

3.9 In the philosophy of the Laozi, people would be better off if they

3.9 knew less

3.10 Yin and yang represent

3.10 the complementary masculine and feminine principles of nature

4.1 The geography of Greece

4.1 was divisive force in Greek life

4.2 Because of how they functioned, Greek city-states

4.2 were difficult for foreigners to fully enter into

4.3 Spartan women

4.3 enjoyed a more active and public life than most other Greek women

4.4 In Greek democratic system, the final world on proposed bills and treaties was made by

4.4 the ecclesia, the assembly of all citizens

4.5 In his drams, Euripides saw the essence of tragedy to be

4.5 people who bring disaster on themselves due to their own flaws

4.6 The culmination of Pre-Socratic thought was the theory that

4.6 the universe consisted of four substances (air, fire, earth, water)

4.7 Socrates' student _____ founded the Academy to study philosophy

4.7 Plato

4.8 The uniqueness of Hellenistic culture lay in its

4.8 fusion of Greek and Eastern cultures

4.9 Major exports from the Greek cities during the Classical and Hellenistic periods included

lo 4.9 olive oil and wine

4.10 Hellenistic physicians discovered

4.10 [human nervous system had both motor and sensory nerves, brain is center of intelligence, brain has cerebrum & cerebellum, and opium relieved pain] All of the above

5.1 An important difference between the political system of the Romans and the Greeks

5.1 Rome extended citizenship to its conquered people, while the Greeks did not.

5.2 In the early republic, Roman society was divided into

5.2 patricians and plebeians

5.3 In the third century B.C.E., the main challenge to Roman control of the Mediterranean came from

5.3 Carthage

5.4 The term mare nostrum refers to the

5.4 Roman conquest of the Mediterranean world

5.5 In Roman families the paterfamilias was the

5.5 oldest dominant male, who had near absolute power

5.6 In traditional Roman families, women

5.6 could inherit and own property

5.7 During the Roman empire, Greek culture

5.7 [adopted practice of public baths, greatly admired, criticized by conservatives, did not appear to corrupt Roman society] All of the above

5.8 After the death of Jesus, many early converts to Christianity were

5.8 women

5.9 During its "golden age," Roman expansion in continental Europe was led by

5.9 retired soldiers

5.10 The emperor Constantine

5.10 built a new capital for the Roman empire

6.1 The First Emperor ordered _____ to move to the capital.

6.1 the nobility

6.2 According to the census of 2 C.E., the Chinese population at the time was

6.2 58 million

6.3 During the Han Dynasty, China developed a _____ system to regulate contact with foreign powers.

6.3 tributary

6.4 The traditional date for the invention of _____ is 105 C.E.

6.4 paper

6.5 During the Age of Division,

6.5 Nanjing was the capital of Southern China.

6.6 After the introduction of Buddhism in China, the monastic establishment

6.6 grew rapidly

6.7 The government of the Tang Empire was characterized by

6.7 a meritocratic bureaucracy

6.8 From the eighth century on, throughout East Asia the language of the education was

6.8 Chinese

6.9 In Vietnam,

6.9 beneficial Chinese innovations were rapidly integrated into local culture

6.10 Among the negative effects of increased Japanese contact with the Asian mainland in the eighth century C.E. was

6.10 smallpox epidemic

7.1 The law of Justinian

7.1 became the foundation of law for most modern European nations

7.2 The corpus juris civilis includes the

7.2 [Code, Digests, Institutes, "body of civil law"] All of the above

7.3 During the reign of Diocletian, the Byzantine Empire was divided into geographical units called

7.3 dioceses

7.4 In 380, the emperor _____ made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire.

7.4 Theodosius

7.5 The development of canon law allowed the Christian church

7.5 authority over ecclesiastical matters

7.6 The controversy icons in the Eastern Christian Church

7.6 led to further separation between western Europe and Byzantium

7.7 The base for the Christianization of the European continent began in 597 in

7.7 England

7.8 By the third century, the Roman army increasingly recruited soldiers from

7.8 Germanic peoples

7.9 The basic Germanic social unit was the

7.9 tribe

7.10 Which of the following statements regarding Charlemagne are true?

7.10 [aka Charles the Great, fought in more than 50 military campaigns, crowned Holy Roman Emperor, linked Roman imperialism with new Roman Christianity] All of the above

8.1 In northern and central Arabia, political affairs, before Muhammad, were dominated by the

8.1 warrior elite

8.2 The presence of the Ka'ba attracted pilgrims to

8.2 Mecca

8.3 The divine revelations of Muhammad are recorded in the Islamic holy book, the

8.3 Qur'an

8.4 The _____ are collections of sayings of or anecdotes about Muhammad

8.4 hadith

8.5 According to the Qu'ran, Muslims

8.5 must abstain from alcohol, gambling, and usury (lending money and charging interest)

8.6 Muslims have interpreted jihad to be

8.6 [individual's struggles against sin, communal struggle, holy ware, 6th pillar of Islam] All of the above

8.7 The shari'a is

8.7 the body of Islamic law

8.8 Jews living under Islam

8.8 participated fully in commercial and professional activities

8.9 In Muslim society

8.9 marriages were arranged by the families

8.10 Which of the following statements regarding the wearing of head veils by Muslim women are true?

8.10 [Qu'ran has no specific rules about veils, indicated respectability, most common among desert women, rooted in pre-Islamic times] All of the above

8.11 The term purdah refers to

8.11 the seclusion of women "behind a screen."

8.12 In Muslim society, merchants were

8.12 a respected party of society

8.13 In Muslim culture, knowledge and learning

8.13 were esteemed above every other human activity

8.14 The religious movement known as Sufism

8.14 rejected materialism

8.15 The English phrase "whirling dervish" comes from

8.15 Sufi dancing

9.1 The Sahara

9.1 takes its name from the Arabic word for "tan"

9.2 A surviving term that comes from the ancient Greek word that means "people with burnt faces" is

9.2 Ethiopian

9.3 Scholars speculate that crops such as bananas, taros, sugar cane, and coconut palms

9.3 were brought to Africa from Southeast Asia

9.4 The term Bantu refers to

9.4 a linguistic classification of African peoples who lived south of the Congo River

9.5 The two most valuable commodities of the trans-Saharan trade were gold and

9.5 slaves

9.6 Arab merchants imported into the Sudan products such as

9.6 silk, cotton cloth, and salt

9.7 The earliest Islamic penetration of sub-Saharan African took place

9.7 all of coastal North Africa

9.8 In Africa, slavery

9.8 had little or no association with "race"

9.9 The greatness of the kingdom of Mali was due to its

9.9 strong economy and able leadership

9.10 Under Mansa Musa, the city of Timbuktu

9.10 developed into a thriving commercial and intellectual center

9.11 The Kebra Negasti

9.11 is the Ethiopian national epic

9.12 Ethiopian tradition asserts that Ethiopian royal dynasty began from

9.12 the union of Queen Makeda and the Hebrew King Solomon, which produced a son.

9.13 The polyglot coastal culture of East Africa is known as

9.13 Swahili

9.14 Great Zimbabwe was the

9.14 capital of a vast empire in southern Africa

9.15 The decline of the Great Zimbabwe in the 15th century was likely the result of

9.15 the land becoming agriculturally unproductive

10.1 Demographers estimate the total population of the Western hemisphere in the 1400s to be about

10.1 70 million

10.2 Demographers estimate that in some parts of the western hemisphere, _____ of the population died within the 1st decades of European contact.

10.2 90%

10.3 "America" got its name because

10.3 mapmakers wrongly believed Amerigo Vespucci saw parts of the New World before Columbus

10.4 Today, increasingly numbers of archeologists have concluded the migrants to the Americas

10.4 traveled both by foot and boat

10.5 The richest concentration of mound buildings found in the Americas

10.5 are in the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys

10.6 Around 900 B.C.E. the center of the early Olmec culture was likely destroyed by

10.6 invaders from the north

10.7 The largest Mayan religious and ceremonial center was

10.7 Tikal

10.8 The Maya Popul Vuh contains

10.8 the Maya view of creation, good and evil, and the purpose of life

10.9 Mayans made notable intellectual achievements in the field of

10.9 [astronomy, math, yearly calendar, recording of history] All of the above

10.10 The Toltecs

10.10 were the most powerful heir to Teotihuacán

10.11 The Cahokia mounds

10.11 include mounds larger than the largest Egyptian pyramid

10.12 To prevent the end of the world, the Aztecs believed that they had to

10.12 sacrifice livestock

10.13 At the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519, they found Tenochtitlán

10.13 exceptionally clean and elegant compared to cities in Spain

10.14 The Inca kingdom was linked by

10.14 an advanced system of roads, some of which were paved

10.15 In the Inca society

10.15 the state required everyone to marry and would arrange marriages

11.1 Political organization among nomadic herding peoples was generally based on

11.1 clan ties

11.2 The Eastern Turks

11.2 frequently raided into China

11.3 The yurt was

11.3 tent in which Mongol families lived

11.4 The Mongols milked

11.4 [horses, sheep, goats, cows] All of the above

11.5 Mongol women were

11.5 expert horseback riders

11.6 In the mid-twelfth century, _____ created a subsistence crisis in Central Asia.

11.6 drop in the mean average temperature

11.7 The Mongol conquest of southern China

11.7 included the use of catapults designed by Muslim engineers

11.8 The decisive factor in the Japanese success in repulsing Mongol invasions was the

11.8 two fierce storms that destroyed the Mongol fleets

11.9 As rulers, the Mongols

11.9 improved their own capital city by importing skilled workers from conquered regions

11.10 Moscow grew in importance compared to Kiev after the thirteenth century because

11.10 it became the center for collection of Mongol tribute in Russia

11.11 The career of Rashid al-Din is representative of the Mongol influence in

11.11 bringing diverse in contact with each other

11.12 The Black Death that struck Europe and the Middle East in the mid-fourteenth century probably came from

11.12 Central Asia

11.13 The Gupta empire in India

11.13 had a notable interest in the arts

11.14 The earliest Indian contact with Islam occurred in the

11.14 eighth century

11.15 Muslim rulers in India were most hostile towards

11.15 Buddhism

11.16 In fourteenth-century India horses

11.16 thrived in the northwest

11.17 In medieval India

11.17 girls were typically married when they were children

11.18 In medieval India authorities considered that the optimal situation for all woman was

11.18 to always be under the control of a man

11.19 The first state to appear in Southeast Asia, with its capital in southern Vietnam, was

11.19 Funan

11.20 In mainland Southeast Asia, the dominant religion after about 800 C.E., was

11.20 Theravada Buddhism

12.1 Between 742 and 1100, China's population

12.1 became the largest of any country in the world

12.2 The population growth experienced by China between 800 to 1100, was encouraged by

12.2 expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China

12.3 The world's first paper money was developed in China

12.3 as a way to avoid carrying heavy bags of coins

12.4 The Song government traded tea to other countries to help meet its military need for

12.4 horses

12.5 The most pressing chronic problem facing the Song dynasty was

12.5 the presence of powerful tribal confederations on its frontiers

12.6 In order to do well on the civil service examinations, students typically

12.6 mastered forms of composition, including poetry

12.7 In spite of Neo-Confucian scholars' injunctions in Song China, many

12.7 widows remarried

12.8 In the practice of concubines in China

12.8 the children from a concubine held equal status with the children from a wife

12.9 Fujiwara dominance of the Japanese government represented

12.9 the privatization of political power and a reversion to clan politics

12.10 The system of rule in which Japanese emperors abdicated but continued to exercise

12.10 "cloistered government"

12.11 The Japanese novel The Tale of Genji

12.11 depicts court life in great detail

12.12 Japanese phonetic script

12.12 fostered the spread of literacy

12.13 The samurai were

12.13 skilled warriors in Japan

12.14 Military rule in Japan emerged out of the combined development of a native warrior tradition and

12.14 the principles of duty to superiors

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