235 terms

Miss Danna's WH to 1715

World Civilization to 1715 Summer 2011 Butler Community College Final Review
1.1 The Greek term "Mesopotamia" refers to
1.1 lands between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers.
1.2 According to the text, the most successful feature of the Neolithic period was the development of
1.2 towns
1.3 The earliest Sumerian writings
1.3 were pictographs in which each sign pictured an object
1.4 Hammurabi's code was designed to
1.4 regulate the relationships among his people.
1.5 Akhenaten's interest in monotheism failed in Egypt because
1.5 it was imposed on people and enforced by intolerance.
1.6 The Phoenicians' greatest cultural achievement was the
1.6 creation of an alphabet.
1.7 In the history of Hebrews, they
1.7 made particular efforts to retain their unique religion and culture.
1.8 The Persian Empire was founded by _____ the Great.
1.8 Cyrus
1.9 All of the following statements regarding Zoroastrianism are true except
1.9 its influence ended with the fall of the Persian empire.
1.10 According to the text, the backbone of the Persian Empire's communication network was
1.10 the Royal Road
2.1 The earliest Indian civilization centered on a great river, the
2.1 Indus
2.2 In modern southern India the major languages are
2.2 Dravidians
2.3 The term asceticism refers to
2.3 the practice of self-discipline and self-denial
2.4 The Upanishads
2.4 stabilized Indian society by encouraging the poor and oppressed to work hard and dutifully.
2.5 Mahayana Buddhism is referred to as "Great Vehicle" because
2.5 it provides a means for laypeople as well as monastics to practice Buddhism
2.6 The Hindu concept of dharma is
2.6 a guide for an ethical and moral life
2.7 The Bhagavad Gita
2.7 urges action in this world
2.8 Ashoka's rule was influenced by Buddhism in that he
2.8 appointed officials to oversee the moral welfare of the realm.
2.9 The earliest precisely dated documents of Indian history
2.9 stone pillars erected by Ashoka.
2.10 During the Kushan period, Indian art was strongly influenced by the
2.10 Greeks.
3.1 The first Chinese Dynasty to have writing, cities, and metalworking was
3.1 Shang
3.2 The crop well suited to the Yellow River (north) basin was
3.2 wheat/millet
3.3 Northern China, compared to southern China
3.3 receives less rain
3.4 In Yangzi River (south) basin, the predominant agricultural activity was
3.4 rice farming
3.5 The written Chinese language
3.5 was a major factor in social, cultural, and political unity
3.6 In Chinese logographic system of writing
3.6 each word was represented by a single symbol
3.7 A ruler retains the Mandate of Heaven as long as he
3.7 rules in the best interests of the people
3.8 According to Confucius, the basic unit of society was the
3.8 family
3.9 In the philosophy of the Laozi, people would be better off if they
3.9 knew less
3.10 Yin and yang represent
3.10 the complementary masculine and feminine principles of nature
4.1 The geography of Greece
4.1 was divisive force in Greek life
4.2 Because of how they functioned, Greek city-states
4.2 were difficult for foreigners to fully enter into
4.3 Spartan women
4.3 enjoyed a more active and public life than most other Greek women
4.4 In Greek democratic system, the final world on proposed bills and treaties was made by
4.4 the ecclesia, the assembly of all citizens
4.5 In his drams, Euripides saw the essence of tragedy to be
4.5 people who bring disaster on themselves due to their own flaws
4.6 The culmination of Pre-Socratic thought was the theory that
4.6 the universe consisted of four substances (air, fire, earth, water)
4.7 Socrates' student _____ founded the Academy to study philosophy
4.7 Plato
4.8 The uniqueness of Hellenistic culture lay in its
4.8 fusion of Greek and Eastern cultures
4.9 Major exports from the Greek cities during the Classical and Hellenistic periods included
lo 4.9 olive oil and wine
4.10 Hellenistic physicians discovered
4.10 [human nervous system had both motor and sensory nerves, brain is center of intelligence, brain has cerebrum & cerebellum, and opium relieved pain] All of the above
5.1 An important difference between the political system of the Romans and the Greeks
5.1 Rome extended citizenship to its conquered people, while the Greeks did not.
5.2 In the early republic, Roman society was divided into
5.2 patricians and plebeians
5.3 In the third century B.C.E., the main challenge to Roman control of the Mediterranean came from
5.3 Carthage
5.4 The term mare nostrum refers to the
5.4 Roman conquest of the Mediterranean world
5.5 In Roman families the paterfamilias was the
5.5 oldest dominant male, who had near absolute power
5.6 In traditional Roman families, women
5.6 could inherit and own property
5.7 During the Roman empire, Greek culture
5.7 [adopted practice of public baths, greatly admired, criticized by conservatives, did not appear to corrupt Roman society] All of the above
5.8 After the death of Jesus, many early converts to Christianity were
5.8 women
5.9 During its "golden age," Roman expansion in continental Europe was led by
5.9 retired soldiers
5.10 The emperor Constantine
5.10 built a new capital for the Roman empire
6.1 The First Emperor ordered _____ to move to the capital.
6.1 the nobility
6.2 According to the census of 2 C.E., the Chinese population at the time was
6.2 58 million
6.3 During the Han Dynasty, China developed a _____ system to regulate contact with foreign powers.
6.3 tributary
6.4 The traditional date for the invention of _____ is 105 C.E.
6.4 paper
6.5 During the Age of Division,
6.5 Nanjing was the capital of Southern China.
6.6 After the introduction of Buddhism in China, the monastic establishment
6.6 grew rapidly
6.7 The government of the Tang Empire was characterized by
6.7 a meritocratic bureaucracy
6.8 From the eighth century on, throughout East Asia the language of the education was
6.8 Chinese
6.9 In Vietnam,
6.9 beneficial Chinese innovations were rapidly integrated into local culture
6.10 Among the negative effects of increased Japanese contact with the Asian mainland in the eighth century C.E. was
6.10 smallpox epidemic
7.1 The law of Justinian
7.1 became the foundation of law for most modern European nations
7.2 The corpus juris civilis includes the
7.2 [Code, Digests, Institutes, "body of civil law"] All of the above
7.3 During the reign of Diocletian, the Byzantine Empire was divided into geographical units called
7.3 dioceses
7.4 In 380, the emperor _____ made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire.
7.4 Theodosius
7.5 The development of canon law allowed the Christian church
7.5 authority over ecclesiastical matters
7.6 The controversy icons in the Eastern Christian Church
7.6 led to further separation between western Europe and Byzantium
7.7 The base for the Christianization of the European continent began in 597 in
7.7 England
7.8 By the third century, the Roman army increasingly recruited soldiers from
7.8 Germanic peoples
7.9 The basic Germanic social unit was the
7.9 tribe
7.10 Which of the following statements regarding Charlemagne are true?
7.10 [aka Charles the Great, fought in more than 50 military campaigns, crowned Holy Roman Emperor, linked Roman imperialism with new Roman Christianity] All of the above
8.1 In northern and central Arabia, political affairs, before Muhammad, were dominated by the
8.1 warrior elite
8.2 The presence of the Ka'ba attracted pilgrims to
8.2 Mecca
8.3 The divine revelations of Muhammad are recorded in the Islamic holy book, the
8.3 Qur'an
8.4 The _____ are collections of sayings of or anecdotes about Muhammad
8.4 hadith
8.5 According to the Qu'ran, Muslims
8.5 must abstain from alcohol, gambling, and usury (lending money and charging interest)
8.6 Muslims have interpreted jihad to be
8.6 [individual's struggles against sin, communal struggle, holy ware, 6th pillar of Islam] All of the above
8.7 The shari'a is
8.7 the body of Islamic law
8.8 Jews living under Islam
8.8 participated fully in commercial and professional activities
8.9 In Muslim society
8.9 marriages were arranged by the families
8.10 Which of the following statements regarding the wearing of head veils by Muslim women are true?
8.10 [Qu'ran has no specific rules about veils, indicated respectability, most common among desert women, rooted in pre-Islamic times] All of the above
8.11 The term purdah refers to
8.11 the seclusion of women "behind a screen."
8.12 In Muslim society, merchants were
8.12 a respected party of society
8.13 In Muslim culture, knowledge and learning
8.13 were esteemed above every other human activity
8.14 The religious movement known as Sufism
8.14 rejected materialism
8.15 The English phrase "whirling dervish" comes from
8.15 Sufi dancing
9.1 The Sahara
9.1 takes its name from the Arabic word for "tan"
9.2 A surviving term that comes from the ancient Greek word that means "people with burnt faces" is
9.2 Ethiopian
9.3 Scholars speculate that crops such as bananas, taros, sugar cane, and coconut palms
9.3 were brought to Africa from Southeast Asia
9.4 The term Bantu refers to
9.4 a linguistic classification of African peoples who lived south of the Congo River
9.5 The two most valuable commodities of the trans-Saharan trade were gold and
9.5 slaves
9.6 Arab merchants imported into the Sudan products such as
9.6 silk, cotton cloth, and salt
9.7 The earliest Islamic penetration of sub-Saharan African took place
9.7 all of coastal North Africa
9.8 In Africa, slavery
9.8 had little or no association with "race"
9.9 The greatness of the kingdom of Mali was due to its
9.9 strong economy and able leadership
9.10 Under Mansa Musa, the city of Timbuktu
9.10 developed into a thriving commercial and intellectual center
9.11 The Kebra Negasti
9.11 is the Ethiopian national epic
9.12 Ethiopian tradition asserts that Ethiopian royal dynasty began from
9.12 the union of Queen Makeda and the Hebrew King Solomon, which produced a son.
9.13 The polyglot coastal culture of East Africa is known as
9.13 Swahili
9.14 Great Zimbabwe was the
9.14 capital of a vast empire in southern Africa
9.15 The decline of the Great Zimbabwe in the 15th century was likely the result of
9.15 the land becoming agriculturally unproductive
10.1 Demographers estimate the total population of the Western hemisphere in the 1400s to be about
10.1 70 million
10.2 Demographers estimate that in some parts of the western hemisphere, _____ of the population died within the 1st decades of European contact.
10.2 90%
10.3 "America" got its name because
10.3 mapmakers wrongly believed Amerigo Vespucci saw parts of the New World before Columbus
10.4 Today, increasingly numbers of archeologists have concluded the migrants to the Americas
10.4 traveled both by foot and boat
10.5 The richest concentration of mound buildings found in the Americas
10.5 are in the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys
10.6 Around 900 B.C.E. the center of the early Olmec culture was likely destroyed by
10.6 invaders from the north
10.7 The largest Mayan religious and ceremonial center was
10.7 Tikal
10.8 The Maya Popul Vuh contains
10.8 the Maya view of creation, good and evil, and the purpose of life
10.9 Mayans made notable intellectual achievements in the field of
10.9 [astronomy, math, yearly calendar, recording of history] All of the above
10.10 The Toltecs
10.10 were the most powerful heir to Teotihuacán
10.11 The Cahokia mounds
10.11 include mounds larger than the largest Egyptian pyramid
10.12 To prevent the end of the world, the Aztecs believed that they had to
10.12 sacrifice livestock
10.13 At the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519, they found Tenochtitlán
10.13 exceptionally clean and elegant compared to cities in Spain
10.14 The Inca kingdom was linked by
10.14 an advanced system of roads, some of which were paved
10.15 In the Inca society
10.15 the state required everyone to marry and would arrange marriages
11.1 Political organization among nomadic herding peoples was generally based on
11.1 clan ties
11.2 The Eastern Turks
11.2 frequently raided into China
11.3 The yurt was
11.3 tent in which Mongol families lived
11.4 The Mongols milked
11.4 [horses, sheep, goats, cows] All of the above
11.5 Mongol women were
11.5 expert horseback riders
11.6 In the mid-twelfth century, _____ created a subsistence crisis in Central Asia.
11.6 drop in the mean average temperature
11.7 The Mongol conquest of southern China
11.7 included the use of catapults designed by Muslim engineers
11.8 The decisive factor in the Japanese success in repulsing Mongol invasions was the
11.8 two fierce storms that destroyed the Mongol fleets
11.9 As rulers, the Mongols
11.9 improved their own capital city by importing skilled workers from conquered regions
11.10 Moscow grew in importance compared to Kiev after the thirteenth century because
11.10 it became the center for collection of Mongol tribute in Russia
11.11 The career of Rashid al-Din is representative of the Mongol influence in
11.11 bringing diverse in contact with each other
11.12 The Black Death that struck Europe and the Middle East in the mid-fourteenth century probably came from
11.12 Central Asia
11.13 The Gupta empire in India
11.13 had a notable interest in the arts
11.14 The earliest Indian contact with Islam occurred in the
11.14 eighth century
11.15 Muslim rulers in India were most hostile towards
11.15 Buddhism
11.16 In fourteenth-century India horses
11.16 thrived in the northwest
11.17 In medieval India
11.17 girls were typically married when they were children
11.18 In medieval India authorities considered that the optimal situation for all woman was
11.18 to always be under the control of a man
11.19 The first state to appear in Southeast Asia, with its capital in southern Vietnam, was
11.19 Funan
11.20 In mainland Southeast Asia, the dominant religion after about 800 C.E., was
11.20 Theravada Buddhism
12.1 Between 742 and 1100, China's population
12.1 became the largest of any country in the world
12.2 The population growth experienced by China between 800 to 1100, was encouraged by
12.2 expansion of rice cultivation in central and southern China
12.3 The world's first paper money was developed in China
12.3 as a way to avoid carrying heavy bags of coins
12.4 The Song government traded tea to other countries to help meet its military need for
12.4 horses
12.5 The most pressing chronic problem facing the Song dynasty was
12.5 the presence of powerful tribal confederations on its frontiers
12.6 In order to do well on the civil service examinations, students typically
12.6 mastered forms of composition, including poetry
12.7 In spite of Neo-Confucian scholars' injunctions in Song China, many
12.7 widows remarried
12.8 In the practice of concubines in China
12.8 the children from a concubine held equal status with the children from a wife
12.9 Fujiwara dominance of the Japanese government represented
12.9 the privatization of political power and a reversion to clan politics
12.10 The system of rule in which Japanese emperors abdicated but continued to exercise
12.10 "cloistered government"
12.11 The Japanese novel The Tale of Genji
12.11 depicts court life in great detail
12.12 Japanese phonetic script
12.12 fostered the spread of literacy
12.13 The samurai were
12.13 skilled warriors in Japan
12.14 Military rule in Japan emerged out of the combined development of a native warrior tradition and
12.14 the principles of duty to superiors
12.15 For a samurai, the term Bushido referred to
12.15 a code of conduct in which to live their lives
12.16 Shingon Buddhists believed that
12.16 the Buddha secretly transmitted the secrets of enlightenment to a few followers
12.17 Pure Land Buddhism appealed to ordinary people because it
12.17 taught that simple faith was enough for salvation
12.18 The beginning of a breakdown of Hojo rule in Japan resulted from
12.18 the lack of booty to be distributed victory over Mongols
12.19 Zen teachings held enlightenment
12.19 with the acceptance and devotion to the authority of the sutras
12.20 The thirteenth-century The Tale of the Heike
12.20 incorporates the Buddhist idea of the transience of life and the illusory nature of glory
13.1 The term Middle Ages
13.1 covers a period notable for it creative vitality
13.2 The notion of "Europe" during the Middle Ages
13.2 refers to both a specific geographic region and a distinct culture
13.3 A vassal is
13.3a knight
13.4 A fief was
13.4 land exchanged between a lord and a knight
13.5 Feudalism was based on one's allegiance to
13.5 another individual
13.6 As a result of the invasion of the 9th and 10th centuries
13.6 development of feudalism was accelerated
13.7 By 1248, the last remaining Muslim stronghold in Spain was
13.7 Granada
13.8 The origins of the modern jury system evolved out of an effort by William the Conqueror to
13.8 accurately determine the total wealth of his kingdom
13.9 In the 12th century, England developed and came to be govered by _____ law.
13.9 common
13.10 The primary principle of the Magna Carta is that
13.10 all Englishmen, including the king, must obey the law
13.11 Pope Gregory VII asserted that
13.11 [church should be free of lay control, investiture should be ended, those who were disobedient of his decrees should be excommunicated, papal orders were of God] All of above
13.12 As a result of the Crusades
13.12 the relations between Jews and Christians worsened considerably
13.13 The typical peasant household
13.13 commonly included blended families
13.14 _____ dominated Europe's trade with Asia.
13.14 Venice
13.15 The greatest period of cathedral building in Europe took place in the
13.15 12th and 13th century
13.16 Gothic architecture
13.16 allowed for much more light to enter a building
13.17 For individuals afflicted with the bubonic plague
13.17 death was usually a few days away
13.18 Economically, the Black Death resulted in
13.18 higher wages and a better distribution of income
13.19 IN large part because of the efforts of Joan of Arc, _____ won the Hundred Years' War
13.19 France
13.20 The triggering event for England's People's Revolt in 1381 was the
13.20 re-imposition of a head tax on all adult males
14.1 The most important factor in the emergence of the Italian Renaissance was the
14.1 rise of a wealthy, urban business elite
14.2 In the political sphere, the Renaissance Italian powers
14.2 [invented the practice of permanent embassies, used spies to gain info, maintained a balance of power between themselves, sent ambassadors to live in capitals of other powers] All of the above
14.3 Italian humanists stressed the
14.3 study of the classics for what they could reveal about human nature
14.4 In regard to the education of women, Italian humanists
14.4 thought the proper sphere for women was private and domestic
14.5 Thomas More's Utopia placed the blame for society's problems on
14.5 social institutions
14.6 According to the Dutch humanist Erasmus, the key to moral improvement was
14.6 education
14.7 Printing with movable type was developed in the mid-fifteenth century in
14.7 Germany
14.8 According to Machiavelli, the sole test of "good" government was whether it
14.8 was effective
14.9 As a result of the Renaissance
14.9 the gulf between the learned minority and uneducated majority increased
14.10 To undercut the power that the aristocracy exercised through its control of Parliament, most English Tudor kings
14.10 avoided expensive wars
14.11 Martin Luther wrote his letter entitled "95 Theses" to Archbishop Albert in response to
14.11 a campaign to sell indulgences
14.12 German rulers were attracted to Luther's ideas because
14.12 [a mean to seize valuable church lands, inspired nationalist, increased political power, gave rulers more independence from the emperor] All of the above
14.13 Central to Calvin's theology is the principle of
14.13 predestination
14.14 Under King Henry VIII, the head of the Church of England was
14.14 Henry VIII
14.15 In religious affairs, Elizabeth I of England established a policy that
14.15 was middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes
14.16 The efforts of the Counter-Reformation were generally
14.16 successful in making widespread reforms in the Catholics church
14.17 When Henry II died in 1559, about _____ percent of Frances's population was Calvinist.
14.17 ten
14.18 One cause of the Low Countries' rebellion against the Hapsburg dynasty was
14.18 the spread of Calvinism and Philip II's inheritance of the Low Countries
14.19 Scholars estimate the number of people executed for witchcraft during the 16th and 17the centuries to be upwards of
14.19 forty thousand
14.20 More than ¾ of those accused of witchcraft were
14.20 women
15.1 In the 17th and 18th centuries, Southeast Asia population
15.1 grew slowly
15.2 The peoples of Southeast Asia shared a common language group and
15.2 environment
15.3 In the 15th century, the largest commercial center of the Indian Ocean was
15.3 Malaka
15.4 The biggest market for Southeast Asian goods was
15.4 China
15.5 The European kingdom that took the lead in overseas exploration was
15.5 Portugal
15.6 Prince Henry II of Portugal is significant for his
15.6 support of exploration
15.7 In the 15th century, the Portuguese developed a new kind of ship, the
15.7 caravel
15.8 The central feature of Columbus's character was his
15.8 deep religious convictions
15.9 On his initial voyage to the Americas in 1492, Columbus considered the natives he met to be
15.9 handsome and peaceful
15.10 As governor of the island of Hispaniola, Christopher Columbus
15.10 subjected the indigenous people to forced labor
15.11 The primary factor determining the direction of Spanish exploration in the Americas was
15.11 the lure of precious metals
15.12 The Aztec Empire was conquered by
15.12 Hernando Cortés
15.13 The Inca Empire was conquered by
15.13 Francisco Pizarro
15.14 Under the Spanish mercantilist principle
15.14 colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country
15.15 The Dutch East India Company represents the
15.15 commercial imperialism of the Dutch
15.16 China failed to compete with Europeans in the maritime expansion into the Americas in the 15th century because of
15.16 military pressure from the Mongols and administrative inefficiency
15.17 The Dutch were able to retain their trading privileges in Japan because they
15.17 helped suppress a Christian uprising
15.18 Spain's economy in the 16th century suffered from
15.18 [rising prices, repeated government repudiations of debts, shortages of desired products, noncompetitive pricing of Spanish goods on international market] All of the above
15.19 The largest buyer of silver in the 16th and 17th century was
15.19 China
15.20 The MIng Dynasty was brought down partly as a result of
15.20 allowing taxes to be paid in silver instead of rice
16.1 During the middle decades of the 17th century, the European nation that prospered the most was
16.1 The Netherlands
16.2 A comparison of the lives of 17th century western and eastern European peasants reveals
16.2 [western peasants able to escape serfdom due to labor shortages caused by Black Death, eastern peasants fell under laws that restricted their ability to move, Prussian laws required that runaways be captured and returned to their lords, both groups experienced huge population losses due to Black Death] All of the above
16.3 Mercantilist theory postulated that
16.3 a nation's international power was based on wealth, especially its gold supply
16.4 Historians today consider the success of absolutism under Louis XIV to be due mostly to his
16.4 expansion and professionalization of the army
16.5 To solve their increasingly disastrous financial difficulties, Spanish monarchs often resorted to
16.5 devaluing its coinage
16.6 By the 17the century, nobles in eastern Europe had
16.6 gained unchallenged control over the peasants who worked their lands
16.7 The true establishment of Prussian absolutism came under the rule of
16.7 Frederick William I
16.8 By 1740, under the rule of Frederick William I, Prussia, 12th in Europe in population
16.8 had the best army in Europe
16.9 The negative reputation of Ivan the Terrible grew from his violent treatment of
16.9 many of the leading boyar families
16.10 Cossacks were
16.10 Russian peasants who had fled their lords
16.11 Under the Ivan the Terrible,
16.11 artisans were bound to their towns so that they could be heavily taxed
16.12 In Peter the Great's tour of western Europe, he
16.12 was notably impressed by the Dutch and English
16.13 Peter the Great's "westernization" of Russia included the requirement that nobles
16.13 [shave their beards, mix socially with men and women together, wear Western clothing, freely choose their own spouses] All of the above
16.14 In the early 17th century, the king of England claimed
16.14 kings had absolute power by divine right
16.15 In the early 17th century, English Puritans wanted
16.15 to eliminate, among other things, bishops from the Church of England
16.16 In 1649, after the execution of Charles I, England was declared a
16.16 commonwealth
16.17 Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate is best described as a
16.17 military dictatorship
16.18 According to the English Test Act of 1673,
16.18 political participation was based upon adherence to the Church of England
16.19 Political power in the Dutch Republic was
16.19 controlled by an oligarchy of wealthy merchants
16.20 The Dutch "golden age" was based on what?
16.20 [commercial prosperity, high standard of living, ethical basis of thrift and frugality, strong monarchical government] All of the above