Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (35)
a _____ results from excessive synchronous electrical discharge (depolarization) of neurons within the central nervous system
Neuronal depolarization is produced by the influx of _____ and repolarization is produced by the efflux of _______
in newborns, excessive depolarization may occur because of the imbalance of neural excitation over inhibition.
factors contributing to this include: developmental factors unique to immature brain with an excess of excitatory neurotransmitters, particularly to _________, and a deficiency of inhibitory neurotransmitters.
HIE and hypoglycemia can result in failure of the _______________ disabling the cell from maintaining a stable membrane potential leading to seizures
ATP-dependent sodium-potassium pump
Other molecules can influence membranes sensitivity to depolarizations, such as calcium and mag, that interact with the membrane to inhibit _________ mvmt. Thus, hypocalcemia or hypomag increase _____________________ resulting in depolarization.
newborns rarely have well-organized __________ _______ seizures, and preterm infants have even less organized than term.
for prolonged seizures, the best documented mechanisms leading to brain injury include: _______________, which may result in hypoxemia and hypercapnia.
hypoventilation and apnea
prolonged and repeated seizures lead to a decrease in brain _______
a ______ is defined as clinically as a paroxysmal alteration in neurologic function (behavioral, motor, or autonomic).
three types of seizures
1. clinical only seizures
2. electroclinical seizures
3. EEG-only seizures
seizure in which there is a sudden paroxysm of abnormal clinical change that does not correlate with simultaneous EEG seizure
clinical only seizure
seizure in which there is a clinical seizure coupled with associated EEG seizure
seizure in which there is and EEG seizure that is not associated with any visible clinical signs
Neonatal EEG seizures are described as having
1. a sudden eeg change
2. repetitive waveforms that evolve in morphology, frequency, and location.
3. amplitude of at least 2 microvolts
4. duration of atleast 10 seconds
seizures must be separated by at least _____ seconds to be considered separate seizures
______ seizures have a defined region of onset and electrical activity initally spreads through neural networks in that region, although the seizure may spread through the hemisphere or to contralateral hemisphere with time.
_______ seizures may begin from a specific point but almost immediately involve bilateral neural networks, such that electrical activity occurs on both sides of the brain simultaneously
clinical manifestations of certain neo seizures may be overlooked by even skilled observers, and these paroxysmal alterations in neo behavior and motor or autonomic function are defined as _______ seizures.
_____ seizures are more common in premature than term infants and some clinical phenomena in full term infants are not consistently associated with EEG seizure activity (clinical-only)
a _______________ seizure is defined as a seizure characterized by rhythmic mvmts of muscle groups in a focal distribution, which consists of a rapid phase followed by a slow return mvmt.
appear as repetitive and rhythmic jerking mvmts that can affect any part of the body including the face, extremities, and even diaphragm or pharyngeal muscles.
clinical seizure type associated most consistently with EEG seizure activity.
________ seizures are classified as focal or multifocal.
focal involve the face, upper or lower extremities on one side of the body, or axial structures (neck/trunk) on one side of the body.
multifocal: involve several body parts, often in migrating fashion, "marches" in non-jacksonian manner (left arm/right leg).
__________ seizures are defined as a sustained flexion or extension of muscle groups.
______ seizures can be focal or generalized.
focal: consists of sustained posturing of a limb or asymmetrical posturing of the trunk or neck. associated consistently with EEG changes.
generalized: characterized by tonic extension of both upper and lower extremities (decerebrate posturing) but also flexion of upper extremities (decorticate posturing).
___________ is defined as rapid, isolated jerk that can affect one or multiple muscle groups, can be ictal or nonictal, and can arise from injury to any level of nervous system.
___________ seizures are usually not associated with EEG changes
myoclonic seizures are distinguished from clonic seizures by faster speed of jerk
________ seizures are not induced by stimuli and cannot be suppressed by pressure to affected body part
__________ Is characterized by mvmts with qualities primarily of termulousness but occasionally clonus.
defined causes of jitteriness: HIE, hypoCa, hypoglycemia, and __________
five characteristics aid in distinguishing jitteriness from seizures: jitteriness is not accompanied by ocular issues (fixation or deviation).
jitteriness is exquisitely stimuli sensitive
dominant mvmt of jitteriness is _____________
hyperekplexia is known as _______ disease or congenital stiffman syndrome.
__________ is the most common cause of neo seizures, both term and preterm.
____________ is the second most common cause of neo seizures in term infants.
a syndrome of autosomal dominant condition manifesting with seizures in first few weeks of life. usually onsets at 2nd or 3rd DOL. seizures are most often focal clonic, focal tonic, or apneic and may have 10-20/day or higher. usually self-limiting disorder with cessation 1-12 months. chromosome 20q13.3 and KCNQ2.
benign familial neonatal epilepsy (BFNE)
fifth day fits
benign idiopathic neonatal seizures. seizures cease within 24hrs-15 days. diagnostic eval is all normal. status epilepticus can occur. meds for acute issues but not long-term therapy.
benign nonfamilial neo convulsions
Other Quizlet sets
bio 1010 lab final
Chapter 14: RNA modification
Nursing 2300 Exam 2 -C
extra study lecture final 2