Midterm (A&P) 1-8

The molecules in the plasma membrane that serve as receptors or binding sites for hormones or other chemical messengers are the:
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Microtubule and microfilament fibers work together to provide shape and support of the cell and form the:cytoskeletonA solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is:hypotonicA cell would lose water and shrink in which of the following solutions:hypertonicThe movement fluid through the cell membrane from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area is called:filtrationWhich of the following lists the correct phases of the cell cycle in order?interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesisIn the cell cycle, DNA replication takes place during:interphaseThe phase of cell division during which the chromatids are pulled apart and move to the opposite ends of the cell is:anaphaseWhich of the following is NOT a basic type of tissue?urinarySimple squamous epithelium hasa single layer of flat cells.Which of the following tissues would line the mouth?epithelialWhich type of tissue contains cells close together and connected to a basement membrane?epithelial tissueWhat type of epithelium contains thin, flat cells stacked upon each other?stratified squamousGlands that secrete their products into ducts are classified asexocrine glands.Epithelial tissue can be modified toperform absorption.Which two types of tissue come together to make "basement membrane"?epithelial and connectiveWhich of the following tissues may contain glands specialized to secrete mucous?epithelialWhich of the following associations is NOT correct?large matrix - epithelial tissueCollagenous and elastic fibers are found in what type of tissue?O connectiveWhich tissue lacks a direct blood supply and heals very slowly?O CartilageWhich function is NOT correctly matched to its type of tissue?Dense connective tissue is muscle that contracts.Which type of muscle is involuntary and lacks striations?smoothWhich is a correct description of muscle tissues?Skeletal muscle cells are often striated where the contractile filaments overlap.The type of membrane that covers the heart is called aserous membrane.Which membrane is composed of loose connective tissue and lines moveable joint cavities?synovialThe main cell of nervous tissue is called a ______while the surrounding cells are known as____neuron; neuroglial cellsWhich type of epithelial tissue membrane lines organs that open to the exterior of the body?mucous membraneWhich of the following is NOT true of epithelial tissue:it has a good blood supply within it and is very vascularGoblet cells are found in:simple columnar epitheliumIntercalated disks are found in:cardiac muscle tissue onlyThe type of epithelial tissue that has the appearance of being stratified but is really a simple tissue is:pseudostratified columnarWhich of the following is a vital function of the skin:it converts modified epidermal cholesterol to vitamin DWhich of the following has no blood supply of its own:the epidermis onlyNutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of:upward diffusion of nutrients from the blood vessels in the dermisThe skin is a:cutaneous membraneThe protein within the stratum corneum, hair, and nails that protects against water loss and abrasion iskeratinThe hypodermis consists of:adipose tissueWhich of the following is the correct sequence in layers of the epidermis going from outermost to innermost layer:stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativumThe layer of the epidermis only present in thick skin such as the palms of the hands and soles of the feet is thestratum lucidumMelanocytes are found in the:stratum basaleFinger-like upward projections of the dermis into the epidermis are called:dermal papillaeThe area of the dermis that contains the fibers, blood vessels, and glands is known as thereticular layerThe main fibers comprising the derms arecollagen and elastin fibersWhen the body temperature rises, which of the following takes place:eccrine glands become activeSweat glands in the axillary and genital areas that become more active at puberty are:apocrine glandsThe whitish crescent shape region on the nail is called thelunulaInflammation of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands is (are) called:boilsWhich of the following is an indication of melanoma:pigmented spot that contains areas of different colorsA severely burned patient that has all skin layers burned and requires grafts to recover the damaged area has a:third degree burnThe smooth muscle in the dermal layer of the skin that results in "goose bumps" when stimulated by colder temperatures and emotional changes is thearrector pilli muscleBed ridden patients often develop sores on areas of the body where boney projections are present. This is because their body weight at these areas limits blood flow to the skin and the tissue dies. These sores are known asdecubitis ulcersWhat type of bone tissue contains the structure known as trabeculae - numerous bony plates separated by irregular spaces?spongyWhat is the name of the cavity that contains the bone cells themselves?lacunaeWhich of these would you NOT expect to find in a long bone?sarcomeresThe type of bone tissue that has lacunae, concentric circles around a central canal, and is found in the middle portion of a long bone iscompact bone.Which is NOT a correct association of bone structures and functions?canaliculi - holes through which blood vessels runBone-forming cells are termedosteoblasts.What cell specializes to break down bone and release the calcium into the blood?osteoclastsIn young persons who are still developing, what is the band of cartilage called that remains to allow lengthwise growth?epiphyseal plateJeremy has broken his leg during a soccer match. Although this is bad, healing standpoint, it is not as bad as if he had torn his cartilage.TrueWhich of the following is NOT a function of bones?provide a non-living architecture to build the body aroundA structure that reduces the weight of the skull and serves as a resonance chamber of the voice issinus.Which bone is the only bone in the body that does not articulate with another bone?hyoid boneWhat disease is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine?scoliosisWhat is the condition in many older women in which the bones become weak and thin?osteoporosisIn a comminuted bone fracture, the break does not pass all way through the bone.FalseThe main shaft of a long bone is called____ while the ends are known as_____diaphysis; epiphysesThe bone cells receive nourishment from blood vessels through tiny passageways that radiate out from the central canal called:canaliculiCompact bone is characterized by ______,whereas spongy bone is characterized by______dense tissue that looks smooth and homogenous ("tree-ring" structure); small needlelike pieces of bone and lots of open space (trabeculae)The most important minerals stored in bones are:calcium and phosphorusRed bone marrow functions to____whereas yellow bone marrow functions to_____produce blood cells; store fat tissueThe factor(s) that determine where bone matrix is to be remodeled is (are):stresses of gravity and muscle pull on the skeleton (physical activity)The presence of an epiphyseal plate indicates that:bone length is increasingThe small cavities in bone tissue where osteocytes are found are called:lacunaeWhen the blood levels of calcium drop below normal:parathyroid hormone secretion increases and osteoclast activity increasesWhile doing "jumping jacks" during an exercise class, your arms and legs move laterally away from the midline of your body. This motion is called:abductionWhich of the following is NOT function of the muscular system:hematopoiesisA sarcomere is:O the contractile unit between two Z linesWhich one of the following groups of skeletal muscle connective tissue terms is placed in order from largest to smallest:fascicle, fiber, myofibril, myofilamentThe striations that give skeletal muscle its characteristic striped appearance are produced, for the most part, by:the arrangement of myofilamentsDuring skeletal muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites of:actin filamentsWhich one of the following is composed of myosin protein:thick filamentsThe association site of a neuron and muscle fiber is known as theneuromuscular junctionAcetylcholine is:a neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscleThe impulse generated by the influx of sodium into the muscle fiber is known as theaction potentialAn elaborate and specialized network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that function in calcium storage is the:sarcoplasmic reticulumThe process of contraction occurs through the process ofthe myosin sliding along the actin to shorten the sarcomereEnergy for muscle contraction comes from_____, produced by_____ATP; cellular respirationOxygen carrying pigment specific to muscle fibers ismyoglobinWhile flexing the forearm at the elbow joint, the:triceps brachii acts as an antagonistWhich one of the following is NOT a criteria generally used in naming muscles:method of attachment of the muscle to boneWhich of the following is an anterior body region:antecubital regionThe lymphatic system:picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the bloodWhich of the following is the correct order of elements in a feedback loop:receptor, control center, effectorWhich of the following is the correct sequence, going from superior to inferior, on the medial abdominal surface:epigastric region, umbilical region, hypogastric regionWhich type of section could be used to separate the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity?transverseNegative feedback systems:operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is shut off or reducedThe axillary region is thearmpitYour body thermostat is located in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. Which of the following elements of control system does this area in the brain represent:control centerIn anatomical position:the body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forwardA section that divides the body on the longitudinal plane into right and left parts is called:sagittalThe study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts is called:anatomyA tissue isa group of cells that perform similar functionsIn describing the relationship of the lungs to the heart:the lungs are lateral to the heartIn describing the relationship between the patellar and femoral regions:the patellar region is distal to the femoral regionThe system that regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood is the:urinary systemThe smallest living unit of all living things is:a cellThe ability of the body to maintain a relatevely stable internal environment is referred to as:homeostasisWhich of the following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex, in the levels of structural organization of the human body:chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal levelWhich of the following is the correct sequence, going from superior to inferior, on the lateral abdominal surface:hypochondriac region, lumbar region, iliac regionThe main carbohydrate that provides our cells with energy isglucoseWhich of the following statements about enzymes is true:they are biological catalysts which serve to start and speed up chemical reactionsAn atom has 7 protons, 8 neutrons, and 7 electrons. The number of electrons in its valence shell is:5Which of the following statements is correct regarding the location of subatomic particles:protons and neutrons are found inside the atomic nucleus and electrons are found outside the atomic nucleusThe base steroid that serves as the backbone of other steroid molecules such as hormones ischolesterolStarch is an example of a(n):polysaccharideAn atom has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons. Its atomic mass number is:14Since carbohydrates dissolve easily in water, they are often described ashydrophilicCompounds that function in maintaining a balance pH are calledbuffersWhich of the following substances below is matched with its correct organic group:enzymes proteinsNinety-six percent of the human body is composed of the elements:carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogenWhich of the following statements is correct regarding the electrical charge of subatomic particles:protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutrons are neutralThe compound MgSO4 is classified as a(n)saltAnimals store glucose within the___ in the form of_.liver; glycogenIsotopes have:the same number of protons and electrons but they differ in the number of neutronsThe subatomic particles that are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms areelectronsWhen a pair of electrons is shared equally between two atoms, the bond formed is called a(n):non-polar covalent bondKeratin and collagen are examples of:proteinsWhich of the following solutions is the weakest acid:solution with a pH of 6.4Which of the following statements about RNA is true:RNA is single strandedWhen electrons are shared unevenly between atoms, partial opposite charges occur within those atoms. This type of bond is known as a(n)polar covalent bondCarpal tunnel syndrome results in damage to the median nerve, resulting in lack of control to the wrist (motor response) and also numbness (sensory input). This indicates thatthe nerve contained both sensory and motor neurons.Which of the following does NOT pertain to neurons?cell wallsSaltatory conduction occurs whenthe action potential jumps from node to node.Neurotransmitters are molecules that cross the synaptic cleft viapassive diffusion and either excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neuron.The main function of the cerebrospinal fluid isto cushion and protect the central nervous system.Which is NOT a correct association of brain structures and functions?thalamus-regulates heartbeat and blood pressureWhich part of the brain contains centers for the heartbeat and respiration?medulla oblongataAn impulse traveling up the spinal cord first enters the brain at themedulla.Consciousness is best associated with thecerebrum.Which lobe of the cerebrum is responsible for vision?occipitalWhich of the following is NOT true about the cerebrum?It is responsible for maintenance of breathing and heart rate.What are the two major parts of the diencephalon?the hypothalamus and the thalamusWhen individuals experience fear and pleasure, what part of the brain has been stimulated?limbic systemWhich is NOT a correct association of disease with cause or symptoms?dyslexia - increased intelligence and physical performanceWhich description best fits the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)?Nerves that carry sensory messages to the CNS and motor commands to the muscles and glands.Which one of the following describes how the interior surface of a cell membrane of a polarized neuron differs from the external environment? The interior is:negatively charged and contains less sodiumThe gap between a neuron sending an impulse and another neuron receiving an impulse is called the:synaptic cleftTaste and smell involve chemoreceptors.TrueTaste buds and olfactory cells are consideredchemoreceptors.Which is a general receptor found in the skin to detect pain?free nerve endingsWhich of the following is not one of the four types of taste?hotThe correct order in which a light ray enters the eye iscornea - aqueous humor - lens - vitreous humor- retina.The order in which light reaches the lens of a human eye iscornea - aqueous humor pupil - lens.Which of the following is NOT necessary to "see" an object?frontal lobe of the cerebrumThe bones of the middle eartransmit sound waves.Which correctly traces the path of a sound vibration until the signal is sent to the brain?auditory canal -tympanic membrane - malleus- incus - stapes - oval window- cochlea - cochlear nerveThe "blind spot" where no photreceptor cells are present is located at the:optic diskThe gel-like substance located in the posterior cavity of the eye that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward is the:vitreous humorWhich one of the following correctly lists the order of the parts through which light passes as it enters the eye:cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humorDynamic equilibrium is maintained by the:semicircular canalsTiny stones within the vestibule that stimulate the hair cells are called:otolithsHearing receptors within the cochlea are found within a region called the:organ of CortiThe decreased lens elasticity associated with aging that makes it difficult to focus on near objects is known as:presbyopia