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abnormal psych exam 4
Terms in this set (133)
Which of the following is the most significant challenge to establishing that therapy is effective?
Many people improve without formal treatment.
What is one of the best predictors of future violence
Past history of violence
How has psychodynamic therapy changed over time?
It focuses on all relationships, not just early experiences
Under what circumstances might the use of medications prior to psychotherapy be essential?
When the patient's symptoms are so severe that they make psychotherapy impossible
Prozac is a
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
The outcome of psychotherapy is usually dependent on whether the therapist and client achieve
a productive working alliance.
Once a person has been involuntarily committed to a mental institution, he or she
may refuse treatment.
Having skills for effective problem solving, possessing an accurate set of assumptions about oneself, and being prepared for problems one is likely to encounter at various life stages are all requirements for
Yuko is painfully shy. Her therapist first shows her appropriate social skills so she can interact competently with others. Then Yuko attempts the same behavior while getting feedback. This illustrates the behavior therapy technique called
rational emotive behavior
Which of the following is a criticism of the use of token economies?
It is inhumane to expect a mental patient to behave in accordance with an established schedule of reinforcements.
he conventional antipsychotic drugs have a problematic side effect involving abnormal movement. This side effect is called
Which of the following is a characteristic of a therapeutic community?
Lawrence, a hypochondriac, gains a great deal of attention from his family when he complains about health problems; they tend to ignore him when he talks about other topics. A behavior therapist has instructed the family to reverse these responses: ignore the complaints and reinforce other topics. What kind of treatment does this best illustrate?
What recent changes have altered the types of therapy that are available?
There is an increased need to prove that therapy is effective.
Why is a drug that is long-acting desirable?
It will need to be taken less frequently.
The most recent research on deinstitutionalization has found
inpatient hospitalization has been increasing due to the failures to provide adequate care in the community.
What is an important function of organizations such as the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the American Medical Association?
They set and maintain professional and ethical standards.
A token economy is
a type of contingency management.
in order to prevent long-term consequences, ________ interventions are provided immediately after a disaster such as a plane crash.
is used as a last resort and involves the destruction of only tiny areas of the brain.
One difference between voluntary hospitalization and involuntary commitment is that people who are in the hospital voluntarily
can, with sufficient notice, leave the hospital when they want to.
What has research on the use of a combined approach to the treatment of depression demonstrated?
Medication in combination with therapy yields the best results.
In general, psychiatrists tend to treat mental disorders by ________ and psychologists by ________.
prescribing medications; examining and changing behavior and thought patterns
How commonly are medications and therapy combined today?
Research suggests that over half of those in treatment receive both psychotherapy and medication.
Key ideas in Gestalt therapy are
integration of mind and body, dream interpretation, and emotional impasse.
The Tarasoff rule usually applies
only if the target of violence is clearly identifiable.
Chrissy and her therapist together wrote a list of ten scenes involving Chrissy's fear of flying. After teaching her a relaxation technique, Chrissy's therapist told her to imagine herself in the least frightening scene while she made herself feel relaxed. Chrissy was undergoing
Which statement about negative outcomes in psychotherapy is accurate?
When a sexual relationship occurs between therapist and patient, it is harmful to the patient.
Suzanne is taking a benzodiazepine to treat her anxiety. She should be concerned that
she may become physically dependent on the drug
A psychotherapist says to her client, "Say whatever comes to your mind, no matter how strange or painful it may seem." The psychotherapist is encouraging
Which of the following is a form of behavior therapy that is commonly used in the treatment of anxiety disorders?
The use of electroconvulsive therapy can be traced to
the belief that schizophrenia and epilepsy are rarely comorbid disorders.
All of the following are social forces that affect teen drug use EXCEPT
increased potency of street drugs.
increased potency of street drugs.
A son of a critical father comes to therapy one day and with no provocation is extremely hostile in his remarks to the therapist. The therapist might consider that ________ is occurring.
Emergency hospitalization without a commitment hearing is permitted when
a physician signs a formal statement saying that imminent danger exists.
Sarah has just received her first treatment of electroconvulsive therapy. She is most likely to
experience amnesia and confusion for an hour after the treatment.
When asked what their orientation is, what do most of today's psychotherapists say?
Which phrase best captures how well mental health professionals do in predicting the occurrence of dangerous acts?
Not as well as we would like
The verdict of Guilty but Mentally Ill
means people with mental illness that are found guilty of a crime go to the hospital until they are better, then return to jail to serve out their sentence.
Which of the following is NOT a problem with the benzodiazepines?
In order for community-based aftercare for psychiatric patients to be successful
the community must be educated so it will be tolerant of troubled people.
Why is it important to prevent teen alcohol use?
Early alcohol use is associated with later alcohol abuse and dependence.
What doctrine came out of the original Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California et al. case?
The duty to warn
Which of the following was a result of the Americans with Disabilities Act?
Employers cannot discriminate against people with psychiatric problems.
Employers cannot discriminate against people with psychiatric problems.
A pregnant and depressed 25-year-old
Atypical antipsychotics are more commonly used today because they
may effectively treat both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Jack tells his therapist about a dream in which he struggles to drive a car that takes him in directions he does not want to go. The therapist interprets the dream to mean that Jack is trying to get control of his career future but feels he is being controlled by others. This suggests that the
manifest content of the dream is the story of trying to drive the car.
In most states that have a Tarasoff-type rule, when a client threatens someone, a therapist must
make a reasonable effort to warn potential victims.
Psychotherapy is best viewed as
a set of tools.
Joan was surprised that, when she went to therapy, her therapist didn't ask her questions, but just listened to her talk. She said she felt very comfortable with the therapist and felt she could say anything at all and be accepted, unlike with her critical parents. She said she could try out new ideas and the therapist was always warm and nonjudgmental. Joan was probably in
What two professional groups deal extensively with emotional problems but typically do not have specific training in counseling?
Physicians and the clergy
The use of drugs that have noxious effects and viewing movies that elicit disgust are both techniques associated with
Oscar has been prescribed the following drugs over the years: Valium, Serax, Xanax, and Ativan. We can guess that Oscar has had problems with
anxiety and insomnia.
Why should defense lawyers be cautious about using the insanity defense?
It rarely works.
According to psychoanalysts, what is the therapist's task when doing dream analysis?
Uncover the disguised meanings of the manifest content.
All of the following are elements of "milieu therapy" EXCEPT
teaching social skills and problem solving.
What do lithium carbonate, carbamazepine (Tegretol), and valproate (Depakote) have in common?
They are all mood-stabilizing drugs.
Which of the following best illustrates the analysis of resistance?
Noting that the client is able to talk freely about his mother but not report anything about his father
Although the majority of currently disordered persons show no tendency toward violence, an increased risk of violence is likely among those who
currently experience psychotic symptoms.
Universal interventions are concerned with two key tasks:
altering conditions that cause disorders and establishing conditions that foster positive mental health.
Lithium was once used
as a salt substitute.
While there is little research on the different substance abuse prevention programs, what there is on programs such as D.A.R.E. suggests
they are mostly ineffective.
In what way does therapy differ from simply talking to a friend or family member about a problem?
A therapist's interaction with a client is guided by theory.
A therapist's interaction with a client is guided by theory.
It works well if a problem is vague and ill-defined.
In Beck's cognitive therapy, an early "homework" assignment would be
recording one's automatic thoughts and their associated emotional reactions.
Drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to be used to
treat psychotic disorders.
The technique of free association is designed to
explore unconscious and preconscious material.
Community-based treatment programs are now referred to as
Selective intervention programs that teach adolescents social skills and enhance feelings of competency are
aimed at increasing self-esteem and reducing the influence of negative peer pressure.
A clinical psychologist who said that maladaptive behaviors are shared between members of a relationship and not just the responsibility of an individual would be in harmony with therapists who take the ________ approach.
Andrea begins therapy and expects that the therapy will help her. This expectancy
may be enough by itself to produce positive change.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of psychotherapy?
It takes time.
The insanity defense is employed in ________ percent of capital cases in the United States.
less than 2
ECT has been found to be an effective treatment for
An attorney says, "My client has a mental disorder that made it impossible, at the time of the crime, to have intended to do harm. Because of this, he is not legally responsible for his actions." The attorney is arguing for
an insanity defense.
Which person described below is the "typical" client in psychotherapy?
There is no "typical" client
The basic assumption of cognitive-behavior therapy is
problems develop because people view themselves and their world in biased ways.
According to the views of Carl Rogers, how should children be raised?
They should be permitted to blossom into the people they are destined to be.
Behavior therapy is based on the belief that
abnormal behavior is learned the same ways as normal behavior and can be unlearned.
Valium exerts its anxiolytic effects by increasing the activity of
According to rational-emotive behavior therapy, which of the following is one of the irrational beliefs at the core of psychological maladjustment?
One should be thoroughly competent and intelligent in all respects
Homicidal behavior amongst former patients is greatest with a diagnosis of
According to the M'Naghten Rule, insanity is defined as
not knowing right from wrong.
Community-based facilities that provide aftercare are typically run by
the residents themselves.
Which of the following is believed to be essential for effective treatment?
Agreement between the client and therapist about the goals of treatment
To summarize what is known about psychotherapy effectiveness we can say that
the chances of an average client benefiting significantly are impressive.
Darryl has schizophrenia, disorganized type. He has visual hallucinations, and one day he saw a giant bug standing in front of him. He picked up a large knife and stabbed it. In reality, Darryl stabbed his mother who had come to tell him dinner was ready. His lawyer argues that Darryl cannot be found guilty because he had no idea what he was doing or that it was wrong. His lawyer is arguing the
Once a person is committed to a mental hospital
the hospital must report to the court as to whether continued confinement is necessary.
Predicting dangerousness is most comparable to
preparing a weather forecast.
The use of lithium in the United States was delayed due to
the fact that it could not be patented.
A doctor prescribing lithium should NEVER say
"We are going to 'target dose' your lithium: When you feel symptoms coming on, take your medication."
What kind of mistake do most mental health professionals make when assessing dangerousness?
They overpredict violence
For which person is aftercare likely to be helpful because the person will fit the services typically offered?
Ned, who has had several schizophrenic episodes
A major advantage of the atypical antipsychotic drugs is that
they have a low risk of movement-related side effects.
The text reported the case of a 6-year-old boy who hated school and showed off in class. His parents and teacher were instructed to ignore the showing-off behavior while reinforcing appropriate behavior. This is an example of
systematic use of reinforcement.
For bipolar patients, the risk of relapse after discontinuing lithium is
roughly 50 percent within six months.
A Nobel Prize winning treatment for schizophrenia was
Which of the following might be a component of a biologically based universal strategy for preventing mental illness?
Encouraging regular physical activity
A major difference between social-learning programs and milieu therapy is that social-learning programs
target specific behaviors for reinforcement.
Freud called dreams "the royal road to the unconscious" because
he believed defenses were lowered during sleep and repressed material would start to come out in dreams.
The main use of lithium is for
Which of the following can be committed against their will to a psychiatric hospital?
Kathie, who has schizophrenia and has been threatening to hurt people on the street.
Dr. Patel says this about his goals in therapy: "I want my patients to become aware of their repressed memories from childhood and come to terms with them in the light of adult realities." Dr. Patel most likely prefers ________ therapy.
Dr. Hart says, "For me, the goal of treatment is not to uncover inner conflicts, but to help the client achieve adaptive responses that he or she can control and maintain through self-monitoring." Dr. Hart probably considers herself a ________ therapist.
The newer anti-anxiety drug Buspar has the advantage that
it has a low potential for abuse.
In the mid-1900s, prefrontal lobotomies were popular as a treatment because
there weren't many other available treatments.
Which of the following has the best chance of successfully pleading not guilty by reason of insanity?
Susie, who has schizophrenia, has been in and out of hospitals all her life, who tried to break the arm of a romantic rival.
"Efforts that are aimed at influencing the general population" best describes
Which of the following was an unforeseen consequence of deinstitutionalization?
A rise in homelessness
What do the medications used to treat mental illnesses do?
Treat the symptoms of the illness with biochemical changes
assumes that thinking influences emotion, motivation, and behavior.
The underlying basis of the insanity defense is
some people who have a mental illness are not able to fully comprehend their behavior, so are not able to form the needed intent for a crime, so shouldn't be punished.
One of the main reasons it is so hard to predict future dangerousness is
situational circumstances play as large a role as an individual's personality traits.
Indicated prevention emphasizes
the early detection and prompt treatment of maladaptive behavior in a person's community setting
What was unusual about the Hinckley case
He was successful in pleading the insanity defense.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding the use of mental health resources in private industry?
Many companies have recently begun providing psychological services through employee assistance programs.
Suppose a family is quite alarmed about the threatening behavior of a relative. They want to petition the court for commitment but there is no time to get a court order. What option does the family have?
After getting a physician to state that the person is dangerous, they can have the police pick up and detain the person for up to 72 hours.
Dr. McDougal's specialty is forensic psychology. We can imagine that she
is concerned with the legal status of the mentally ill.
The process by which lithium reduces the likelihood of mood swings
is unknown at this time.
At Rush General, the inpatient mental ward employs a program that focuses on modifying the behavior of the patients by giving them gold stars for good behavior and ignoring undesirable behavior. What type of treatment program does this appear to be?
The concepts of universal, selective, and indicated interventions were widely used by
public health experts to describe ways of preventing disease.
All of the following are sociocultural efforts toward universal prevention of mental disorders EXCEPT
In contrast to most other forms of therapy, the client-centered therapist
does not give answers or interpretations nor even steer the client onto certain topics.
Which of the following statements about therapy is TRUE?
Even people who are happy and successful can benefit from therapy.
While ________ can be used in treatment, it also a means by which problematic behaviors are acquired when others' behavior is problematic.
Individuals vary tremendously in their degree of motivation for psychological treatment. Which of the following is likely to be the most motivated?
Harvey, who is going through a job layoff and feels overwhelmed by the crisis.
Under what circumstances can a therapist violate a client's confidence?
When someone is in danger
Why are the SSRIs the most commonly used antidepressants today?
Their side effects are more tolerable than those of the first-generation antidepressants.
Which of the following is a sociocultural effort toward universal prevention?
Which of the following is a disadvantage of the use of drugs to treat psychological disorders?
Relapse is likely when drugs use is terminated.
Which of the following is a barrier to effective deinstitutionalization?
The lack of sufficient mental health services in the community
Abby is participating in cognitive-behavioral therapy to treat her depression. Her therapist
will help her conduct "experiments" to test a variety of hypotheses about the accuracy of her cognitions.
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