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Terms in this set (81)
Is the Intestines aerobic or anaerobic?
Anaerobic, the little oxygen that does enter the lumen is quickly consumed by the facilitated microorganisms
Lesion found at site of infection, when It is a collection of immune cells known as macrophages. Granulomas form when the immune system attempts to wall off substances that it perceives as foreign but is unable to eliminate.
What happens during imflamation?
Histamine, released by mast cells, contributes to capillary leakiness. Prostaglandins stimulate nerve endings, causing pain, one of the five signs of inflammation.
Pyrogens indirectly cause the hypothalamus to...
Increase temerature set point, know as the fever starter
Infection of the blood
Neutrophils are a type of polymorphonuclear leukocyte, characterized by multilobed nuclei. Macrophages and dendritic cells are white blood cells with a single nucleus that is not multilobed.
If an organism was unable to produce natural killer cells, then it...
more prone to cancer, Natural killer cells, a type of white blood cell, help detect and destroy infected cells and cancer cells.
The vesicle that results from engulfment of a bacterium by a cell of the innate immune system is called a...
Phagosome, response to phagocytosis of a microbe. The phagosome will fuse with a lysosome to form a phagolysosome
Gnotobiotic animals are animals that are germ-free or in which all the microbial species present are known. They are reared in sterile conditions in a laboratory and are used in research; they will not be found in the wild. Gnotobiotic animals have impaired immune function.
Innate immunity is also called
Which complement cascade pathway depends on the production of antibodies?
Classic Pathway, Both the alternate pathway and the lectin pathway are components of the innate immune system and do not require antibodies. Only the classical pathway requires prior antibody production.
Which receptors recognize bacterial proteins?
Which of the following compounds are produced by bacteria?
Immunomodulins are proteins made by normal bacterial microbiota that influence the host's immune response.
Host produced compunds
Cytokines, keratin, and defensins are host produced.
Cronic inflammation can be caused by ...
Mirobes resistance, autoammune response, and irritation to nonliving particles
Extravasation of immune cells depends on
increased leakiness of endothelial cells.,Extravasation of immune cells depends on increased leakiness of endothelial cells. Antibodies are not necessary for extravasation. Selectin expression is increased prior to extravasation.
Opportunistic pathogens are normal microbiota that may infect a compromised host. The fact that a pathogen is opportunistic does not imply anything about its antibiotic resistance.
Spleen, Bone marrow and the thymus are primary lymphoid organs. The spleen, along with the appendix and lymph nodes, are secondary lymphoid organs.
Which of the following locations is least likely to harbor commensal microbes?
Blood is usually sterile. The skin, mouth, and vagina interface with the external environment and are colonized by bacteria.
Major cause of tooth decay
Streptococcus mutans is a major cause of tooth decay. The acidic fermentation products of S. mutans demineralize teeth and cause dental caries (tooth decay).
Which of the following is true of neutrophil endothelial cell interactions?
Expression of endothelial selectins and neutrophil integrins is regulated. Both endothelial selectin expression and neutrophil integrin expression are induced in response to signals caused by microbial infection.
Important for inflammation
is the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system, towards the site of tissue damage or infection. This process forms part of the innate immune response, involving the recruitment of non-specific leukocytes. Monocytes also use this process in the absence of infection or tissue damage during their development into macrophages.
Type 1 inferons
Protect agains viral infections, Interferons are species specific antiviral compounds. Among their activities, they increase levels of ds RNA endonucleases.
is a human cell-membrane glycoprotein that prevents cell phagocytosis by host immune cells.
recognize the constant region of human antibodies. An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells - including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and mast cells - that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.
Would an alternative pathway kill A gram- negative, gram positive and a virus?
The alternative complement pathway depends on C3b meeting LPS on an invading Gram- negative microbe. Virally infected host cells lack the LPS trigger and rely on antibodies, and hence the classical complement cascade. Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer, which hinders access of complement components.`
Which of the following is true of macrophages?
They are the cell most likely to first encounter an invading pathogen.
What helps prevent microbrial growth in mucosal membranes?
Lysozyme, which cleaves cell wall peptidoglycan, can help prevent microbial growth. Moisture, or the skin protein keratin, do not prevent microbial growth.
Macrophages and Neutrophils both can do what?
Engulf and perform phagogenisis
B-Cells make what?
In molecular biology, CD4 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
The CD8 co-receptor is predominantly expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T cells, but can also be found on natural killer cells, cortical thymocytes, and dendritic cells. It is expressed in T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and hypo-pigmented mycosis fungoides, but is frequently lost in other T-cell neoplasms.[
Found in all cells that are nucleated. Their function is to display fragments of proteins from within the cell to T cells; healthy cells will be ignored, while cells containing foreign proteins will be attacked by the immune system.
s normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
Measure to cause disease
Measure rate of leathal infection
number of organisms needed to kill 50% of host
Number of organisims to colonize 50% of health
Section of genome, contain multi virulance genes
How do pathogens gain access to host tissues?
Type l phili
Adhere to mannose
grows from outer membrane
Type lV pili
do not adhere to manose, grows from inner membrane
Forced non-phagocytis host cell to engulf bacteria
Binding of M Cells
M cells used as natual port of entry into body
Promotion of actin rearangment..
forced phagocytosis, movemment of bacteria within host cell, cell to cell spread
Endotoxins and exotoxins
Endotoxin (also known as lipopolysaccharides, LPS) is part of the outer cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and is released upon cell death. Anthrax toxin is produced only by Gram-positive Bacillus anthracis. Likewise, only particular species produce shiga toxin and diphtheria toxin.
Bacterial product secteted into medium
5B, 1A that invades host cell, A is the toxic agent
Inhibition of a metobolic process that inpeds the growth of the bacteria
By the inhibition of a metabolic process that is essential for the bacterial survival
Mother to child
Disease is passed between speices, not nessisarally mother to son
resembles conjugation machinery
Type III secretion systems use special delivery proteins to inject toxin directly into the host cell cytoplasm thereby avoiding the problem of dilution in the environment. Exotoxins can be just as virulent as toxins injected directly into the cytoplasm.
Extracellular pathogens can attempt to avoid immune detection by
Altering cell surface protein
lice, colonize surface of host
What a therapeutic drug does to your body
Antibiotics mechanism in action
Inhibition of cell wall synthase, disruptionof cell membrane function, inhibition of protein synthase, action as antimetabolites, inhibition of nucleic acid synthase.
What does Beta-Lactamase do?
Are the antibiotic of choice for gram negative bacteria.
Bacteriostatic antibiotic, Salmonella spp, Haemophilius influenza, very toxic for bone marrow
RNA transcriptition, treat turberculosis
Block DNA synthase by inhibiting DNA Gyrase, treat UTI
What do penicillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin have in common?
Inhibit cell wall
Differinciate in the bone marrow, and create antibodies
Make effector t-cells
Pathogen associated molecular patterns, and recognize troll-like receptors
Antibodies, blocks infections
Cellular mediated immunity
Phagocytosis and Intercellular microbes which kills infected cells
What receptor does binds with Class l
What receptor does binds with class ll
What are the two Viralance factors?
1. Calcium binding proteins, Important in the signaling that leads to the change of form.
2. alpha-1-3 glucane, important compound of the cell wall
Enterotoxin causes what?
Endotoxin in LPS layer causes...
Type 1 fimbriae
Type lll secretion is found in what cell?
How to prevent phagocytes from killing bateria?
Capsules, Resistance to lysosmal enzymes, prevent phagocyte lysosome fusion, Toxins that kill the phagocyte
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