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Anatomy and physiology exm 4
Terms in this set (55)
Parasympathetic innervation is predominant during
Sympathetic innervation is predominant during _______.
Visual pigments are differentiated based on the identity of the ______ protein
The detection of light is ultimately communicated to the brain because of _______.
photoreceptor cell hyperpolarization
During light adaptation, _______.
the pupils dilate to allow more light to enter the eye
Which structures are the visual reflex centers controlling the extrinsic muscles of the eyes?
The receptive structures for smell are the ____
olfactory sensory neurons and cilia
In detection of smell, odorants themselves _______.
bind to receptors and stimulate opening of ion channels
Taste is 80% smell. The relationship between smell and taste is evidenced by the fact that both sensations are a type of ________.
The _______ of sound waves is interpreted as differing pitches, whereas the _______ of sound waves is interpreted as loudness.
Which homeostatic imbalance is characterized by a howling ringing in the ears, vertigo, vomiting, and nausea?
Dynamic and static equilibrium transduction both use the principle of
At what age is it estimated that we would lose all of our hearing receptors?
Which of the following is not a prefix used to refer to muscle?
In order to receive a signal to contract, each skeletal muscle must be served by
The elastic components of muscle consist of which elements?
Tendon, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
The thin filaments are not comprised of which of the following components?
What is the significance of the muscle fiber triad relationship?
The T tubules conduct electrical impulses that stimulate calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
At the neuromuscular junction, the muscle contraction initiation event is ______.
binding of acetylcholine to membrane receptors on the sarcolemma
between action potential initiation and mechanical activity of a muscle fiber is called the ______.
What is calcium's function during muscle contraction?
Calcium depolarizes the muscle fiber.
Calcium binds to troponin, changing its shape and removing the blocking action of tropomyosin.
Corpses usually exhibit rigor mortis
a lack of ATP hydrolysis prevents myosin head detachment from actin
Isometric contractions come into play when an individual is ________.
maintaining an upright posture
A sprinter is likely to depend on _________ respiration to generate ATP, and a Tour de France cyclist is likely to rely on
Sprinters typically possess more ______ muscle fibers.
What type of exercise can convert fast oxidative fibers to fast glycolytic fibers?
A major cellular feature in smooth muscle that contributes to its rhythmicity and ability to participate in peristalsis is the presence
Electrical coupling by gap junctions is present in ______.
unitary smooth muscle
The muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement is
You could conclude that a muscle with the term "rectus" included in its name is a muscle whose fibers run ______ to the body's vertical axis.
Bones and muscles work together to move your body. In this case one bone is the ______ and a second bone is the ________.
The muscles of the ______ are rather unusual for muscles because they insert onto the skin or other muscles.
This muscle is the primary muscle used in smiling.
When you bite down on an ice cube, this muscle strongly contracts.
When you lie on your back, your ______ muscles contract to lift your head.
Pinkeye is an infection of the _______ of the eye.
Of the following senses, which accounts for the majority of sensory receptors in the body?
Which of the following terms is a synonym for eyelids?
In order to turn the eye straight down, the actions of the _______ muscle(s) is (are) required.
Inferior rectus and superior oblique
Sympathetic fibers innervating the iris of the eye cause which response?
Focusing an object on the _______ provides the highest visual acuity
The formation of rainbows reflects the fact that _
Visible light consists of multiple wavelengths of light.
The muscles of the back that are most susceptible to injury during heavy lifting belong to the ______ muscle group.
The ______ is (are) the most important muscle(s) for inspiratory breathing.
The levator ani and ______ muscles form the pelvic diaphragm.
The ______ muscles are antagonistic to each other when moving the scapula forward and backward
Serratus anterior and trapezius
Swimmers tend to have particularly well-developed ______ muscles.
The ______ muscles comprise the triceps surae that inserts onto the calcaneal tendon and are prime movers of plantar flexion.
Gastrocnemius and soleus
8. Night blindness
● A condition that can result from a deficiency of vitamin A (retinol or retinoic acid)
. Otitis media
● An inflammation of the lining of the middle ear.
50. Conduction deafness
● A condition of deafness that may result from otosclerosis
Houses the spiral organ (of Corti).
A membrane that transmits sound vibrations to the auditory ossicles.
The receptor organ for hearing
What is the main function of the rods in the eye?
Vision in dim light *(Cones= Vision in bright light)
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