Covered entities may disclose PHI to public health entities even if law does not specifically require the disclosure, if the disclosure is for the purpose of:
--. . . preventing or controlling disease, injury, or disability, including, but not limited to, the reporting of disease, injury, vital events such as birth or death, and the conduct of public health surveillance, public health investigations, and public health interventions; or, at the direction of a public health authority, to an official of a foreign government agency that is acting in collaboration with a public health authority. (45 CFR 164.512(b))
responsibility to report program and management problems to both the HHS Secretary and Congress, along with recommendations to correct them.
--2011 Workplan includes: hospital admissions with conditions coded "present on admission," hospital readmissions, payments for diagnostic x-rays in hospital emergency departments, accurately coding claims for Medicare home health resource groups, quality of care in skilled nursing facilities, physician coding of place of service, laboratory test unbundling by clinical laboratories, and Medicare billings with the modifier GY
--OIG identifies payments for noncovered services, improper coding, and other types of improper payments for various inpatient and outpatient services.
When union organizing begins, an election following NLRB regulations is conducted to determine if a union will be authorized to bargain and negotiate a labor contract with management, as well as which employees will be part of the bargaining unit that will be covered.
Contracts deal with union recognition, management rights, union security, wages, pensions, benefits, conditions, and hours of work, vacations, holidays, leaves of absence, seniority, promotions, and similar terms and conditions of employment.