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Aircraft Systems and Flight Instrumentation
Terms in this set (52)
Aircraft piston engines are characterized by
high thrust to weight
Type of aircraft engines and their characteristics
Uses pistons to convert pressure into rotating motion.
Turbojet engines with propellers turboprop.
Hybrid of turboprop / turbojet Turbofan (modern fighter aircraft)
A turbine engine is...
is less complex than a piston engine
A turboprop aircraft...
is speed limited by its propeller(s).
A high bypass turbofan engine
is quieter than a turbine engine
Small general aviation and military aircraft run on which type of electricity?
General aviation (DC)
ØThe electrical system with constant voltage is _________.
Direct Current (DC)
A ______ is used to protect aircraft electrical systems from overload.
Gyroscopic flight instruments are _______, _______ and _______, and what are their functions?
attitude, heading indicator and turn coordinator
Function of Attitude
aircraft pitch, roll and orientation with respect to the horizon
Function of Heading Indicator
Function of Turn Coordinator
rate and "quality" of the turn
Pitot-static instruments are ________, ________ and ________, and what are their functions?
air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator, and altimeter
Function of air speed indicator
aircraft's speed by comparing pitot pressure to static pressure
Function of vertical speed indicator
accurate indication of rate of change of altitude
Function of Altimeter
measures the height of the aircraft relative to sea level
If indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant in a climb, true airspeed (TAS) will increase (TRUE or FALSE)?
All aircraft flying above FL 180 in the United States will use a common altimeter setting of __________.
Uncorrected airspeed read directly from an indicator (IAS)
IAS corrected for static source error (CAS)
Corrected for density altitude and compressibility (TAS)
Speed over the ground (TAS +/- winds)
actual aircraft's height above sea level usually expressed as MSL (mean sea level)
the height of an aircraft above the terrain over which it is flying
this is the uncorrected altitude read directly from the altimeter
this is the altimeter reading that corresponds to the altitude in the standard atmosphere where the pressure is the same as you are
the pressure altitude corrected for temperature variations
the altitude above which the standard altimeter setting of 29.92 will be used
an engine that uses one or more pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.
Most reciprocating engines have their cylinders arranged in rows. We call these "inline" engines. The advantage of inline engines is their compactness.
an internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes on a wheel. This configuration was very commonly used in aircraft engines because it made high-power air-cooled engines possible.
Opposed cylinder engine
same kind of cylinders as a radial engine, but the cylinders are simply rearranged. Putting them in this configuration reduces the aerodynamic drag and allows for a high thrust-to-weight ratio.
a turbine (fan) driven by the high-speed exhaust gases leaving the cylinder during the exhaust stroke. Attached to a common shaft is a compressor that compresses the air to a higher (near sea level) pressure, allowing the engine to develop power at a much higher altitude.
A turbine engine which produces its thrust entirely by accelerating the air through the engine. Few aircraft still use the pure turbojet.
an airplane with an external propeller that is driven by a turbojet engine
a type of jet aircraft engine that uses a large fan to drive air into or through the engine
Aircraft electrical systems consist of the following components, at a minimum:
· Master/battery switch
· Alternator/generator switch
· Electrical buses and circuit breakers
· Voltage regulator(s)
· Associated electrical wiring
A bus is a...
terminal in the aircraft electrical system to connect the main electrical system to the equipment using electricity as a source of power
a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. The device is a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation.
Turn coordinator, attitude indicator, heading indicator
Pitot Static System
sensitive to airspeed, altitude, and rates of altitude change provides the pressure information displayed on cabin instrumentation.
airspeed indicator, altimeter, and vertical speed indicator, altimetry, magnetic compass
Advantages of turbojet engine
- Higher speed potential - supersonic
- Utilizes cheaper fuel
- Less complicated than piston engine
Disadvantages of turbojet engine
- Higher fuel consumption
- More noise
- More sophisticated manufacturing
Advantages of turboprop engine
- Better fuel economy
- Instant power response
- High power to weight
Disadvantages of turboprop engine
- Speed limited
turbofan engine parts (high bypass)
3.Low pressure compressor
4.High pressure compressor
6.High pressure turbine
7.Low pressure turbine
Advantages of turbofan engines (high bypass)
- Better fuel consumption
- Higher power output to weight
disadvantages of turbofan engines (high bypass)
- Slower throttle response
- More complex
- Higher drag
- Greater cost
used to drive hydraulic systems
Auxiliary Power Units (APUs)
Used to Generate Power to Start Engines
-Air compressors units
-Air conditioning units
allows the pilot to set the altimeter to the current local pressure. Without an adjustment, the altimeter would be subjected to pressure changes as a result of weather, and not just a change in altitude
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