The amount of blood pumped from one ventricle per minute is called the ______.
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Terms in this set (117)
Backflow of blood is prevented by ______ within the heart.valvesThe ______ surface of the heart, formed primarily by the left atrium, is called the ______.posterosuperior, baseThe heart develops blood pressure through alternate cycles of heart wall ______.contraction and relaxationThe pulmonary circulation conveys blood that is ______ in oxygen to the lungs before returning back to the ______ side of the heart.low, leftThe outer portion of the pericardium is a tough, dense connective tissue layer called the ______ pericardium.fibrousThe systemic circulation is movement of blood from the ______ side of the heart to the systemic cells of the body and back to the ______ side of the heart. Multiple choice question.left, rightThe thin space between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium is the ______ cavity.pericardialThe superior border of the heart is formed by the ______ aorta and pulmonary trunk and the ______ vena cava.Serous fluid is secreted into the pericardial cavity to minimize ______.FrictionThe heart is a relatively small, conical organ approximately the size of a person's ______.clenched fistThe fibrous pericardium is attached to both the ______ and the base of the ______ vessels.diaphragm, greatAs we age,______ is deposited in the epicardium, and so this layer becomes ______.fat, thickerThe visceral layer of the serous pericardium is also called the ______.epicardiumThe myocardium is the ______ layer of the heart wall and is composed of ______ muscle tissue.middle, cardiacThe two layers of the ______ produced and release serous fluid into the pericardial sac.serous pericardiumThe endocardium is composed of a ______ squamous epithelium, called an endothelium, and a layer of ______ connective tissuesimple, areolarIn the average normal adult, the heart weighs about ______ grams.300Blood that enters an atrium is passed to the ventricle on the _____ side of the heart.sameThe outermost heart layer of the heart wall is the ______ and is also known as the ______ layer of the serous pericardium.epicardium, visceralThe anterior and inferior interventricular sulci extend inferiorly from the ______ sulcus toward the heart ______.coronary, apexThe myocardium is the ______ of the three heart wall layers.thickestThe ______ surface of the heart and the ______ surfaces of the heart valves are covered by endocardium.internal, externalThe right atrioventricular opening is covered by the ______ valve.tricuspidThe right atrium receives blood from the ______ circulation, and the left atrium receives blood from the _______ circulation.systemic/pulmonaryThe first heart sound heard with a stethoscope is the result of the ______ valves closing; producing a "lubb" sound.atrioventricularTwo large arteries, the ______ and the ______ exit the ventricles of the heart.pulmonary trunk, aortaThe fibrous skeleton of the heart is located between the ______ and the ______.atria, ventriclesThe fibrous skeleton of the heart serves to ______.provide an attachment site for cardiac muscle, stabilize the heart valves, electrically isolate the atria from the ventriclesThe right atrium receives venous blood from the ______ circulation and the heart muscle itself.systemicThe second heart sound is produced when the ______ valves close, producing a "dupp" sound.semilunarThe opening of the coronary sinus is in the ______.right atriumThe ______ septum forms a thin wall between the right and left atrium.interatrialA function of the fibrous skeleton is to provide ______ insulation between atria and ventricles.electricalThe right ______ valve is forced closed when the right ventricle begins to contract, preventing blood from flowing back into the right atrium.atrioventricularIn the right ventricle, papillary muscles anchor thin strands of collagen fibers called ______.chordae tendineaeThe three major vessels that empty into the right atrium are ______.superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinusThe chordae tendineae are composed of numerous thin strands of ______ fibers.collagenEach semilunar valve is composed of ______ thin, ______ shaped, pocket like semilunar cusps.three, half-moonThe posterior atrial wall is smooth, but the auricle and anterior wall exhibit obvious muscular ridges, called ______.pectinate musclesThe pulmonary trunk divides into right and left ______, which carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs.pulmonary arteriesDuring ventricular relaxation, blood is allowed to flow through the right ______ valves into the right ventricle.atrioventricularOnce gas exchange occurs in the lungs, the oxygenated blood travels through the pulmonary ______ to the ______ atrium.veins, leftThe internal wall surface of the right ventricle contains the ______, which are large, smooth irregular muscular ridges.trabeculae carneaeThe left atrioventricular valve has ______ cusps.twoThe right ventricle typically has three cone-shaped, muscular projections called ______.papillary musclesTypically, ____ large papillary muscles project from the left ventricle's inner wall and anchor the chordae tendineae that attach to the _____ of the left AV valve.two/cuspsAs blood is pumped by the ventricles into the arterial trunks, it pushes against the cusps, forcing the semilunar valves to ______.openAt the ______ end of the ventricular cavity, the aortic semilunar valve marks the end of the left ventricle and the entrance into the aorta.superiorThe pulmonary trunk carries ______ blood.deoxygenatedLike the right atrium, the left atrium also has auricleThe left AV valve is forced ______ when the left ventricle begins to contract, ______ blood backflow into the left atrium.closed, preventingThe right coronary artery typically branches into the right ______ artery, which supplies the lateral wall of the right ventricle, and the posterior ______ artery, which supplies the posterior surface of both the left and right ventricles.marginal, interventricularThe trabeculae carneae in the left ventricle are ____ prominent than in the right ventricle.moreThe circumflex artery supplies blood to the ______ ventricle.leftTypically, the number of papillary muscles in each ventricle is ______ the number of ______ in the AV valves.equal to, cuspsThe coronary sinus drains directly into the ______ atrium of the heart.rightThe ______ arteries are the only branches of the ascending aorta.coronaryThe ______ cardiac vein runs alongside the ______ interventricular artery.middle, posteriorThe left coronary artery typically branches into the ______ interventricular artery and the ______ artery.anterior, circumflexCardiac muscle cells are relatively short, branched cells that usually house ________ central nuclei and numerous mitochondria for ____ supplyone or two/ATPThe anterior interventricular artery (LAD) supplies the ______ wall of the left ventricle and ______ the interventricular septum.anterior, most ofCardiac muscle cells are connected to adjacent cells by _______.intercalated discsThe ______ cardiac vein travels close to the right ______ artery.small, marginalCardiac muscle cells contract as a single unit because muscle impulses are distributed immediately and simultaneously throughout all cells of first the ____ and then the ________.atria/ventriclesThe ______ cardiac vein runs alongside the ______ interventricular arterygreat, anteriorNumerous ______ within the intercalated discs prevent cardiac muscle cells from pulling apart.desmosomesIn addition to gap junctions there are numerous ________ that keep the cardiac cells from separating.desmosomesCardiac muscle cells are arranged in _____ bundles and wrapped around and between the heart chambers.spiralGap junctions increase the flow of ____ between the cells as the muscle impulse moves along the sarcolemma.ionsIn the cardiac conduction system, a muscle impulse is generated at the ________. It spreads throughout the atria and to the ________.sinoatrial node/atrioventricular nodeNeighboring cardiac muscle cells in the walls of heart chambers have formed specialized cell to cell contacts called __________, which electrically and mechanically link the cells together and permit the immediate passage of muscle impulsesintercalated discsHow is the muscle impulse spread from from one cardiac muscle cell to the next in the cardiac conduction system?Gap junctionsThe gap junctions of intercalated discs provide a ________ pathway across the membranes of adjoining cardiac muscle cells, allowing the ________ passage of ions required for the synchronous beating of cardiac muscle cells.low resistance/unrestrictedUnder the influence of ______ innervation, SA node cells initiate impulses 70 to 80 times per minute.parasympatheticWithin the intercalated discs, ______ junctions increase the flow of ions between the cells as the muscle impulse moves along the muscle impulse initiated in the sinoatrial node travels to the atrioventricular node via the ______.internodal pathwaysTrue or false: Cardiac muscle cells function as a single, coordinated unit; the precisely timed stimulation and response by cardiac muscle cells of both the atria and the ventricles aredependent on gap junctions and desmosomes.TrueThe left and right bundles conduct the impulse from the AV bundle to conduction fibers called ______.Purkinje fibersThe muscle impulse from the AV bundle branches is delivered to ______ fibers in each ventricle.PurkinjeMuscle impulse conduction along the Purkinje fibers is extremely ______, consistent with the large size of the cells, and the impulse spreads immediately throughout the ______ myocardium.rapid, ventricularThe cells of the SA node act as the ______, the rhythmic center that establishes the rate for cardiac activity.pacemakerThe heart is innervated by the ______ nervous system. Multiple choice question.autonomicThe AV node is located in the floor of the right atrium between the right ______ and the opening for the ______.AV valve, coronary sinusTrue or false: Preganglionic axons enter the sympathetic trunk and ascend into the thoracic and cervical portions, where they synapse on ganglionic neurons.TrueThere is an opening in the fibrous skeleton that allows the AV node to communicate with the next part of the conduction system, the ______.atrioventricular bundleThe cardiac cells of the ventricles begin to contract within ______ milliseconds after the firing of the SA nodal cells.120 to 200The relaxation phase of a heart chamber is termed ______.diastolePurkinje fibers are ______ than other cardiac muscle cells.larger______ systole occurs at the beginning of the cardiac cycle.atrialParasympathetic innervation ______ the heart rate.decreasesDuring early ventricular ______, the AV valves are forced closed producing the "lubb" sound..contractionSympathetic innervation of the heart arises from the _______ segments of the spinal cord.T1-T5During ______ pressure on blood in the ventricles forces the semilunar valves to open, and blood is ejected into the arterial trunks.During ______ pressure on blood in the ventricles forces the semilunar valves to open, and blood is ejected into the arterial trunks.Ventricular contraction (systole) increases pressure on the blood within the ______.ventriclesDuring diastole, the myocardium of a chamber ______, and the chamber fills with blood.relaxesDuring early ventricular diastole, the ______ valves close to prevent blood backflow into the ventriclessemilunarContraction of the atria finishes filling the ventricles through the open ______ valves while the ventricles are in diastole.atrioventricularDuring late ventricular diastole, the ______ valves open, and passive filling of the ventricles from the atria begins and continues.AVDuring ventricular ejection, semilunar valves ______.openDuring the cardiac cycle, blood flows from veins into the atria under ______.low pressureWhen ventricular pressure rises significantly, the AV valves ______, and the semilunar valves are forced ______ due to increased pressure in the ventricles, allowing blood to enter the large arterial trunks.close, openAbout ______% of the ventricular filling is passive occurring when both chambers are relaxing (in diastole) and the atrial pressure is greater than the ventricular pressure.70Early ventricular diastole is the start of ventricular ______.relaxationDuring atrial relaxation and ventricular filling, the AV valves remain ______.openDuring early ventricular ______, the AV valves are forced closed producing the "lubb" sound..contractionDuring the cardiac cycle, blood only passes from the atria into the ventricles if the ______ valves are open.atrioventricularFilling of the final ______ of the ventricles occurs when the atria contract30%