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Chapter 21-23 Patient Care
Terms in this set (81)
medicines are classified by what 3 things
The ____________ name represents the exact chemical structure of the drug.
the ___________ names are given to medications by their original manufacturers when it becomes commercially available and before the medications receive official approval by the FDA.
a drug may also be called by its proprietary name, known as its __________ name, which is given by a pharmaceutical company to its own specific product.
The ______________ is most often used to help answer most of these questions. this lists drugs by both the generic and brand names and will provide information regarding the use of the drug, its side effects, contraindications, and dosage.
Physician's Desk Reference
____________ form of a drug refers to the type of preparation which the chemical agent is transported into the body
a _____________ is the most common form of dosage form. The drug will be granulated and compressed into a solid hard disc and can be coated to suppress a delayed action or to protect the lining of the stomach.
a ____________ is a powdered or liquid is contained in a gelatin shell. The gelatin will dissolve once it reaches the stomach.
a ___________, such as in the treatment of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, can exert action by producing bronchodilation or reducing inflammation.
a _________ is for insertion into the rectum, vagina, or urethra.
a _____________ is to be taken orally or parenterally with a syringe and needle, while a ____________ is to be taken orally once they are shaken thoroughly.
a _____________ permits a drug to be applied on the skin surface where it is absorbed into the bloodstream. This releases the drug gradually over time
___________ are used to reduce or relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness. They can be divided into two groups: nonopioids (nonnarcotics) or opioids (narcotics).
______________ analgesics include acetaminophen (Tylenol), and aspirin. They are relatively safe and are used in treating mild to moderate pain. They do not cause physiologic dependency.
_____________ can cause GI bleeding when taken in large doses or in conjunction with blood thinners because it also inhibits platelet aggregation (clotting) and may cause GI discomfort unless taken with food or milk. never take this on an empty stomach. It tends to burn the mucosa of the stomach.
Local anesthetics block _________ conduction to anesthetize an area of the body without causing patients to lose consciousness as they do with general anesthetics. They are administered _________ or by ___________.
nerve, topically, injection
Local anesthetics usually include _____________ and ________________
lidocaine (Xylocaine) and Carbocaine.
Drugs used to treat anxiety are called _____________ agents or ____________. These drugs include Valium, Ativan, and Versed.
__________ and ________ are used for the treatment of anxiety, muscle spasms, and seizures, which are often used as a preoperative sedative for induction of anesthesia, or for conscious sedation during interventional procedures in radiology. _________ is also used as a pre-op medication.
valium and ativan, Versed
If the patient has a pre-existing IV in place, medication and/or contrast agents may be administered by __________________ into the IV line. This method would prevent additional needle punctures into the patient where the needle is inserted into the existing tubing using sterile technique. Then, the IV will be flushed with dextrose or normal saline.
____________ inhibit clotting of the blood or increase the coagulation time and are used primarily to prevent or treat thromboembolic disorders. They can be administered orally or parenterally.
The two most common anticoagulants are ___________ and ____________.
heparin and Coumadin
Heparin and enoxaparin are not effective when administered orally because they are not absorbed from the ___________ and they should not be administered intramuscularly because they may case a __________.
____________ may be used to prevent an arterial thromboembolism, it will inhibit platelet aggregation, and it can also be used with warfarin to prevent a thromboembolism caused by arterial fibrillation.
Diabetes mellitus is classified as Type _____ for those who have a complete absence of insulin.
Type____ diabetes is the classification for those who have an insulin deficiency and insulin resistance.
Type I diabetes is treated with ___________, but could also aid in the treatment of Type II diabetes.
Type II diabetes can be treated with either ____________, _______________ ,or ______________.
Micronase, Glucotrol, or Glucophage
In type ii diabetes, if __________ is prescribed, lactic acidosis must be monitored. It has a mortality rate of about 50%. It is also recommended that it be temporarily discontinued before the use of contrast agents.
_____________ are drugs that are primarily used to treat allergic disorders, both acute and chronic.
There are two major groups of antihistamines: 1) those that are ___________ and 2) those that are _____________.
The most common antihistamine used is _________________, which is a sedating agent designed to reduce the itching and discomfort associated with urticaria, (hives).
_____________ and ____________ are a non-sedating antihistamine that is administered orally.
____________ disease is characterized by a resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia (slowness of movement).
____________, _____________, and ___________ are used in the management of Parkinsons disease
Sinemet, Mirapex and Requip
___________ drugs are designed to inhibit platelet aggregation. They are used in the prevention of MIs, stroke, and TIAs. Aspirin, Plavix, and ReoPro are frequently used agents. The complication however is bleeding.
____________ drugs are used to treat psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, delusional disorders, acute mania, and agitated states.
Haldol and Zyprexa are commonly used antipsychotic drugs. A wide variety of adverse side effects, including __________ and orthostatic ___________, may be associated with these types of agents
_________________ are drugs that are used in the treatment of asthma and COPD. They dilate the size of the bronchioles by relaxing spasm in the bronchial walls. ___________ is the most common agent for immediate response and relief.
______________ are used to reduce the symptoms associated with chronic inflammatory disorders or short-term treatment of acute inflammatory conditions. Decadron, Solu-Cortef, and Solu-Medrol have been used.
___________ is a corticosteroid administered by inhalation to decrease inflammation in the lungs.
____________ are drugs that increase the amount of urine excreted by the kidneys, thus removing sodium and water from the body.
________ is often used to treat the edema associated with congestive heart failure.
Diuretics are often used in conjunction with ______________ drugs for the treatment of high blood pressure. These patients receiving diuretics should be monitored for excessive fluid loss, which might result in an ___________ imbalance.
____________ anti-inflammatory agents have analgesic, antipyretic which reduces fever, and anti-inflammatory actions. A good example is Ibuprofen (Motrin) which is commonly used to treat inflammatory conditions, mild to moderate pain, and fever.
_____________ can produce varying degrees of depression of the central nervous system ranging from a mild sedation to sleep. Extended use of these drugs can lead to physical dependence.
___________ are drugs that dissolve thrombi that have already formed. Reteplase and t-PA are commonly used and are administered parenterally in cases of acute MI and stroke. The major adverse effect is bleeding complications.
The study of how a drug is absorbed into the body, circulates within the body, is changed by the body, and leaves the body is called _____________-.
what are 4 basic factors that influence the movement of a drug
- __________ is the movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood
- _______________ is drug movement from the blood to various tissues and organs of the body
- ______________ is the chemical alteration of various substances. The liver is the main organ involved in this, attacking a drug that is fat soluble and turning it into a water-soluble substance so it can be eliminated from the body.
- _________________ is the movement of drugs out of the body. The kidney is the most important organ for this
what are some factors that can effect the pharmacokinetics of a drug and the response on a patient?
sex, genetics, weight, route drug was given, time administered, disease present
___________ alergic reactions may range from a mild response such as hives to a severe life-threatening response such as anaphylaxis, while _____________ alergic reactions are usually less severe than immediate reactions and may not become evident for hours or even days after the drug was administered.
what are the levels of sedation
minimal sedation, moderate sedation, deep sedation, general anesthesia
______________ sedation is a drug-induced state during which patients will respond normally to verbal commands. Cognitive function and coordination may be affects, but ventilation and cardiovascular function are unaffected.
Minimal sedation (anxiolysis)
_____________ sedation or analgesia (conscious sedation) is where a drug-induced depression of consciousness occurs, but patents respond purposefully to verbal commands. Ventilation is adequate and cardiovascular function is usually maintained.
____________ anesthesia is a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable even to painful stimuli. Ventilation is frequently inadequate, and cardiovascular function may be impaired. Because levels of sedation are alone a continuum, predicting how a patient will respond is not always possible. Children, in particular, are prone to slip from one state to another with our much warning.
The five rights of safe medication administration are ?
the right drug, right amount, right patient, right time, and right route.
the most common unit of measurement for liquid medication is the _____________
Drugs may be administered in a variety ways which include ?
orally, sublingually, rectally, buccal, topically, or parenterally
Oral medication may be in _______________, _____________, ____________ or _______________ form.
liquid, tablet, granule, or capsule form
the absorption time for an oral medication will take ___________ because the absorption takes place along the entire length of the GI tract.
_____________ medications (like nitroglycerin) are placed under the tongue where they dissolve and are absorbed directly into the bloodstream from the oral mucosa. This medication is not swallowed and does not enter the GI tract or hepatic system. (response occurs in secs)
___________- drugs may be in tablet, spray, capsule, or liquid
The three most common routes that drugs are administered parenterally are _____________, ________________, and ______________
intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intravenous.
The general-purpose syringe comes in a variety of sizes, including?
2, 2.5, 3, 5, 10, 20, and 50 ml or cc.
____________ syringes have a locking device on the tip that hold the needle firmly in place.
______________ syringes are for pushing contents in or suctioning them out of feeding tubes, NG tubes, and PEG tubes that have been inserted into the body.
The length of a needle will vary from ____ to ____ inches, the gauge from ____ to ____
0.25-5, 14- 28
The smaller the diameter of the shaft or the finer the needle, the ____________ the gauge number.
An __________ is a sealed glass container designed to hold a single dose of liquid medication and varies in size from 1 ml to 10 ml or more. Its narrow, scored neck is snapped off to open it and allows access to the medication. Always use a dry gauze pad to wrap around the neck to snap off the top.
____________ are single-dose or multi-dose glass containers with rubber stoppers. A metal cap protects the stopper until the medication is ready for use.
The ________ vein and ________ veins are the best choices for venipuncture.
If extravasation or infiltration occurs, you should ?
remove the needle, apply pressure to the injection site, and apply warm moist heat to relieve the discomfort.
three methods to administer drugs by IV?
- single administration - the drug is injected slowly.
- administration of a drug by IV bolus or IV push. The term "Bolus" refers to the amount of fluid injected, and intravenous push refers to a raid injection. Intravenous push is generally used in an emergency when immediate drug action is required.
- IV infusion of a large volume of fluid (drip infusion). it requires some additional equipment to ensure accurate delivery of the intravenous solution. An administration set for infusion of the solution and an IV pole will be needed.
____________ contrast media are composed of low atomic numbers for easy penetration. This type of media are relatively lucent to x-rays. The agents will appear dark on radiographs applying an increased density onto the recorded image and are composed of elements with low atomic numbers.
_____________ contrast media are composed of high atomic numbers. Because of this, x-ray photons become absorbed at various degrees. The anatomic areas filled by these agents will appear light on the recorded image.
___________ contrast materials are composed of low atomic numbers and are administered as gas, or gas-producing tablets, crystals, or soda water. Because cells absorb oxygen quickly, this gas is rarely used alone as a contrast agent.
Barium sulfate mixed with ________________ is recommended to reduce irritation to the colon and to aid the patient in holding its contents during the exam.
cold tap water
adverse reactions to barium sulfate?
• Extravasation into the abdominal cavity causing barium peritonitis
• Vaginal rupture
• Fluid overload
______________ is a measure of the total number of particles in a solution per kilogram of water. when this is __________ in contrast media have a larger number of particles in solution causing a higher risk of a reaction.
High-osmolality contrast media can cause the arteries of the kidneys to expand resulting in the release of vasoconstrictors. This will cause a diminished ________ supply to the kidneys.
__________ injection of contrast can induce nausea and vomiting, and extravasation especially if the patient moves from the discomfort.
some criteria for the use of low osmolality contrast media for patient?
- Patients with histories of adverse reactions to contrast media, excluding mild reactions such as the sensation of heat or flushing
- Patient with a history of asthma or allergies
- Patients with known cardiac problems
- Patients with generalized severe debilitating conditions
- Patients who will undergo helical CT procedures
The most important patient care aspect before administrating a water-soluble iodine contrast media is the patient's ____________. (disease/ age play big part)
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