38 terms

Pathologies - upper limb

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Bone metastases
transfer of disease/cancerous lesions from one organ to another
bursitis definition
inflammation of the bursae or fluid-filled sacs that enclose joint.
bursitis appearance
fluid-filled jt space with possible calcification
carpal tunnel syndrome def
compression of median nerve as it passes thru the center of the wrist
carpal tunnel appearance
possible calcification in the carpal sulcus
fracture definition
break in the bone
fracture appearance
disruption in bony cortex with soft tissue swelling
joint effusion def
accumulated fluid in jt cavity. sign of an underlying condition
joint effusion appearance
fluid-filled jt cavity
osteoarthritis def
noninflammatory jt disease - degenerative. Gradual deterioration of articular cartilage with hypertrophic bone formation
osteoarthritis appearance
narrowing of jt space w/periosteal growths on the jt margins
osteomyelitis def
infection of bone or bone marrow
osteomyelitis appearance
soft tissue swelling and loss of fat pad detail visibility
osteopetrosis def
marble bone. Hereditary disease - abnormally dense bone. May lead to obliteration of the marrow space
osteopetrosis appearance
Chalky white or opaque with lack of distinction b/w the bony cortex and trabeculae
osteoporosis
reduction in quantity of bone; atrophy of skeletal tissue. Most fractures are secondary to osteoporosis.
osteoporosis appearance
decrease in bone density, thin cortex
Paget's disease
"osteitis deformans" - destructive bone disease followed by reparative overproduction of very dense yet soft bones that fracture easily. Bowed legs, e.g. Most common bones: pelvis, femur, skull, vertebrae, clavicle, and humerus.
Paget's disease appearance
mixed areas of sclerotic and cortical thickening along with radiolucent lesions. "Cotton wool"
rheumatoid arthritis
chronic inflammatory changes. Earliest found is soft tissue swelling around ulnar styloid of wrist.
rheumatoid arthritis appearance
closed jt spaces with subluxation of the MCP jts.
skier's thumb
sprain or tear of ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb near the MCP jt of the hyperextended thumb.
skier's thumb appearance
widening on the inner MCP jt space of thumb and increase in degrees of angle of MCP line
multiple myeloma
malignant. Most common of primary cancerous bone tumors. Arises from bone marrow or marrow plasma cells. Usually fatal within a few years.
multiple myeloma appearance
punched out osteolytic (loss of calcium in bone) lesions, scattered thru the affected bones
Osteogenic sarcoma
"osteosarcoma" - 2nd most common Malignant tumor. May develop in people with Paget's disease.
Ewing's sarcoma
In children and young adults. "Onion peel" appearance. Arises in bone marrow. Prognosis is poor
Chondrosarcoma
Slow growing tumor of the cartilage.
Chondrosarcoma appearance
Dense calcifications within the cartilaginous mass
Endochondroma definition
Slow-growing cartilaginous tumor of small bones of hands and feet
endochondroma appearance
well-defined, radiolucent-appearing tumors with a thin cortex that often leads to pathologic fracture w/only minimal trauma
Osteochondroma
"exostosis" - arise from outer cortex, Most common benign bone tumor.
Osteochondroma appearance
outer cortex with tumor growing parallel to bone, pointing away from the adjacent jt.
Barton's fracture
fracture of posterior lip of the distal radius involving the wrist jt
Bennett's fracture
fracture at base of 1st metacarpal bone extending into the carpometacarpal jt
Boxer's fracture
transverse fracture thru metacarpal neck. Mostly in 5th metacarpal
Colles fracture
Transverse fracture of distal radius where distal fragment is displaced posteriorly
Smith's fracture
Reverse of Colles. Transverse fracture of distal radius with distal fragments displaced anteriorly