Only $35.99/year

Typical antipsychotics

Terms in this set (12)

1. Dystonias: prolonged contraction of muscles during initiation, including painful muscle spasms; life-threatening if airway is compromised. Higher risk with younger males.
Centrally-acting anticholinergics (diphenhydramine, benztropine) can be used for prophylaxis or treatment. - may occur within a few hours to days of treatment
2. It also causes oculogyric crisis, which is a spasm of the extraocular muscles, causing an upward and outward position of the eyes.
3. After a few days to a month, there could be Akathisia or pseudo-parkinsonism.
Akathisia: restlessness with anxiety and an inability to remain still; treated with anticholinergics (diphenhydramine, benztropine), benzodiazepines or propranolol.
Pseudo-parkinsonism is characterized by muscle rigidity, usually in the facial muscles, giving the face a wooden, mask-like appearance.
Other symptoms include bradykinesia, (or slow movements), and tremors.
Treat with anticholinergics, or propranolol if tremor is the main symptom.
It's important to note that typical antipsychotics are more likely to cause these side effects compared to the atypical antipsychotics.
However, extrapyramidal symptoms usually disappear once the medication is stopped.
4. Tardive dyskinesia, which can present after several months or even years; is characterized by constant involuntary, rhythmic movements.
This typically happen with the perioral muscles causing the person to repeatedly smack, or purse their lips.
Unlike acute extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia can be irreversible, so the medication should be discontinued at the first sign of tardive dyskinesia.