1.) How far, how fast, how precise, and how graded does neural communication act?
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8.) Where brain structure does Neuroendocrine cells effect and what hormones does the sit release?Neuroendocrine cells produce and secrete hormones that effect the POSTERIOR PITUITARY.The two hormones that the posterior pituitary releases are vasopressin and oxytocin8.) What biological effect does vasopressin have?Vasopressin (Antidiuretic hormone) raises blood pressure, inhibits urine formation through water conservation.9.) What biological effect does Oxytocin have?Oxytocin promotes reproductive and parenting behavior, uterine contractions, and mil letdown reflex.10.) In the mammary gland example, what encourages the posterior pituitary to secrete oxytocin?Sensory signal from nipple stimulation Somatosensory Cortex Hypothalamus Neuroendocrine Signals Posterior PituitaryThe posterior pituitary then releases oxytocin which contracts the mammary glands.11.) What is the order of the endocrine feedback loop?HYPOTHALAMUS RELEASING HORMONES (TRH) ANTERIOR PITUITARY TROPIC HORMONES (TSH) THYROID GLAND THYROID HORMONES TARGET CELLS12.) What is the purpose of releasing hormones? What structure synthesizes them?The HYPOTHALAMUS secretes RELEASING HORMONES (such as TRH) into blood vessels, which controls pituitary's release of tropic hormones.13.) What is the purpose of tropic hormones? What structure synthesizes them?The ANTERIOR PITUITARY makes TROPIC HORMONES (such as Prolactin, FSH, LH, ACTH, and TSH) which affect OTHER endocrine glands. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) stimulates the THYROID.14.) What is a goiter?A GOITER is a swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck as a result of iodine deficiencyDue to too much TSH from Anterior Pituitary. In this case he negative feedback loop is not working and there is no inhibition of the releasing hormone. This builds up and causes thyroid enlargement.15.) What is Congenital Hypothyroidism caused by?Inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Could be due to too little releasing hormone (TRH), or tropic hormone (TSH)16.) What is Cushing Disease and what is it caused by?Cushing's Disease is a psychiatric disorder that results in fatigue and depression. It is caused by long term excess glucocorticoids17.) What releasing hormone does the hypothalamus secrete to begin gonad hormone production?The hypothalamus secretes GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE (GnRH)18.) GnRH stimulate the anterior pituitary to release what hormone? What are the effects of these hormones?In response to GnRH, the anterior pituitary releases FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE(FSH) and LUTEINIZING HORMONE(LH)In males: The testes sense LH and produce and secrete the androgen, testosterone, a steroid hormone. The testes also sense FSH and produce spermLH Testosterone production/ secretionFSH Sperm productionIn females: Ovaries sense FSH, which stimulated the maturation of egg containing follicles and the secretion of estrogens. LH stimulates the follicles in the ovary to rupture releasing the egg and form a corpus luteum to secrete progesterone19.) How do Oral Contraceptives work?Oral Contraceptives use the negative feedback loop. They inhibit the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus stopping FSH and LH from releasing. This does not let LH stimulate the follicle in the ovary and keeps it from releasing an egg.20.) What are the 7 Levels of Sex Determination?Chromosomal Sex Gonadal Sex (testis, ovaries) Internal Sex Organs (prostate, uterus) External Sex Organs Brain Sex Gender Identity Gender Preference21.) What decides whether the embryo will develop male or female gonads?The presence of the SRY gene determines whether testis or an ovary develops. The SRY Gene is on the Y chromosome, which females (XX) don't have.22.) What kind of effects affect genitalia maturation and growth, and are lifelong? When do these mostly occur?ORGANIZING EFFECTS, which mostly occur prenatally or shortly after birth.23.) What kind of effects come and go, but also can be long lasting? When do these mostly occur?ACTIVATING EFFECTS, which occurs at any time in life. These include breast growth, sperm production, muscle development, and hair growth- they can be reversible! Additionally, in both boys and girls, a common activating effect is dramatic increase in sexual interest.24.) Without the SRY gene, what type of ducts develop further and what type of ducts shrink?In females the Mullerian ducts develop into the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina. The wolffian ducts shrink.25.) In males, what hormone guides development of the wolffian ducts? What hormone causes the Mullerian ducts to shrink?Testosterone promotes the development of the wolffian ducts. The Anti-Mullerian hormone causes the Mullerian ducts to shrink.26.) What was going on in the Dominican Republic??These individuals had the chromosomes for a male (XY) but did not have their Wolffian Ducts develop/ Mullerian Ducts shrink. However, later in life there was a surge in testosterone, overcoming the enzymatic problem and leading them grow male teste although they were raised as females up until puberty.27.) What causes Klinefelter Syndrome?Klinefelter Syndrome is a trisomy of the sex chromosomes. They have the two female sex chromosomes(XX), but also have the male (Y) chromosomes. This leads to conflicting genetic material resulting in small testes, osteoporosis, and poor hair growth.28.) During sexual activity, how do hormones influence women?In non-human females, estrogen produced before OVULATION promotes sexual behavior. If the female rat is sexually receptive, she is in ESTRUS. In HUMANS, women do not have an estrus, but they are more likely to initiate sex at ovulation29.) How do response curves differ between male and females during sex?Males have a very standard response curve of excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution- very similar to an action potential. Females have many different curves (Can experience orgasms multiple time)30.) What hormone is released at ejaculation? What drug treatment would block this?Oxytocin is released at ejaculation. Naloxone drug treatment would block this, and men report less pleasurable orgasm31.) What are important brain areas for reproductive behavior in both sexes?Both sexes experience activation in the medial amygdala and medial preoptic area.32.) What brain areas for sex are important for males?The SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC NUCLEUS. It is in the MPOA (INAH3). Lesions here cause impairment, while stimulation causes enhancement. This area is 2-3X LARGER in men, with its size related to activity. The size also depends on prenatal exposure to testosterone.33.) What structure is especially important for women in sex?VENTROMEDIAL HYPOTHALAMUS- important for receptivity to male advances34.) During orgasm, which part of the brain do you see light up in males and females?During orgasm, the VTA is activated in males, making orgasm very pleasurable and even addicting. For females, the deep cerebellar nuclei, but there is also decreased orbitofrontal cortex activity.35.) What neurotransmitter motivates sexual behavior?DOPAMINE- for men, increasing dopamine produces erection then ejaculation. Giving a dopamine agonist would NOT interfere with sexual activity, unlike other drugs.36.) What neurotransmitter impairs sexual ability?SEROTONIN37.) How are the brains of males and females different?Males in general have GREATER ASYMMETRY and a LARGER RIGHT HEMISPHERE. Men have less gyrification as well.Females in general have a LARGER CORPUS CALLOSUM, which correlates with cognitive skills. Female brains are more symmetrical. Women also have greater gray matter in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and superior temporal Gyrus.38.) What percent of Americans identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual?3.5%39.) What are the two hypotheses for sexual orientation? Which has more support?Two Hypothesis:SOCIAL INFLUENCE HYPOTHESIS: Home environment or early seduction causes homosexuality.BIOLOGICAL HYPOTHESIS: Something in a person's biology helps to determine sexuality. Proof? Early childhood gender nonconformity. Homosexuals feel different early on, preferring to be around other-sex companions. This hypothesis has much more support than the social influence hypothesis.40.) When you compare hormonal levels between homosexuals and heterosexuals, what do you find?At least for testosterone, it is the SAME between people. Does this mean testosterone has no influence? Perhaps testosterone doesn't have any influence now. If it ever did, it would likely occur PRENATALLY.41.) What brain structures are usually different in straight versus gay men?In HOMOSEXUAL MALES, you find (1) a smaller INAH3 and (2) larger ANTERIOR COMISSURE just like in heterosexual female brains. Also, you also find a larger SCN with more vasopressin-secreting cells. Note: Heterosexual male brains are not necessarily similar to homosexual female brains, even though there are similarities between homosexual male and heterosexual female brains.42.) Which group of people has better verbal ability?Females- this is due to HIGH ESTROGEN LEVELS. High estrogen levels is associated with decreased spatial ability, but females have enhanced speech and manual skill tasks because of this hormone!43.) How are the brain connection differences between males and females?Males are better connected from front to back and are better at concentrating on one task. Women are better connected from left to right usually making them better at multitasking.44.) Which group of people, males or females, has better visual spatial ability?Males - this is due to TESTOSTERONE which increases the growth of the right hemisphere. (Remember? Males have a larger right hemisphere!) We see in studies that males low in testosterone have impaired spatial ability.