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Psychology Module 48
Terms in this set (10)
a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior
A lawyer is distressed by feeling the need to wash his hands 100 times a day. He has no time left to meet with clients, and his colleagues are wondering about his competence. His behavior would probably be labeled disordered, because it is ______________ that is, it interferes with his day-to-day life.
dysfunctional or maladaptive
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
Are psychological disorders universal, or are they culture-specific? Explain with examples.
Some psychological disorders are culture-specific. For example, anorexia nervosa occurs mostly in North American cultures, and taijin-kyofusho appears largely in Japan. Other disorders, such as schizophrenia, are universal-occurring in all cultures.
What is the biopsychosocial approach, and why is it important in our understanding of psychological disorders?
Biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences combine to produce psychological disorders. This broad perspective helps us understand that our well-being is affected by our genes, brain functioning, inner thoughts and feelings, and the influences of our social and cultural environment.
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by extreme inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity
What is the value, and what are the dangers, of labeling individuals with disorders?
Therapists and others apply disorder labels to communicate with one another using a common language, and to share concepts during research. Clients may benefit from knowing that they are not the only ones with these symptoms. The dangers of labeling people are that (1) people may begin to act as they have been labeled, and (2) the labels can trigger assumptions that will change people's behavior toward those labelled.
What is the relationship between poverty and psychological disorders?
Poverty-related stresses can help trigger disorders, but disabling disorders can also contribute to poverty. Thus, poverty and disorder are often a chicken-and-egg situation, and it's hard to know which came first.
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