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Terms in this set (387)

1. Frequent handwashing is important.
2. The child should avoid exposure to other illnesses.
3. The child's immunization schedule will need revision.
4. Kissing the child on the mouth will never transmit the virus.
5. Clean up body fluid spills with bleach solution (10:1 ratio of water to bleach).
6. Fever, malaise, fatigue, weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhea are expected to occur and do not require special intervention.
Rationale: AIDS is a disorder that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is characterized by a generalized dysfunction of the immune system. Both cellular and humoral immunity are compromised. The horizontal transmission of HIV occurs through intimate sexual contact or parenteral exposure to blood or body fluids that contain visible blood. Vertical (perinatal) transmission occurs when an HIV-infected pregnant woman passes the infection to her infant. Home care instructions include the following: frequent handwashing; monitoring for fever, malaise, fatigue, weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea, altered activity level, and oral lesions and notifying the health care provider if these occur; monitoring for signs and symptoms of opportunistic infections; administering antiretroviral medications, as prescribed; avoiding exposure to other illnesses; keeping immunizations up to date; avoiding kissing the child on the mouth; monitoring the weight and providing a high-calorie, high-protein diet; washing eating utensils in the dishwasher; and avoiding the sharing of eating utensils. Gloves are worn for care, especially when in contact with body fluids or changing diapers. Diapers are changed frequently and away from food areas, and soiled disposable diapers are folded inward, closed with their tabs, and disposed of in a tightly covered plastic-lined container. Any body fluid spills are cleaned with a bleach solution made up of a 10:1 ratio of water to bleach.
1. Administer regular insulin.
2. Encourage the child to ambulate.
3. Give the child a teaspoon of honey.
4. Provide electrolyte replacement therapy intravenously.
5. Wait 30 minutes and confirm the blood glucose reading.
6. Prepare to administer glucagon subcutaneously if unconsciousness occurs.
Rationale: Hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level less than 70 mg/dL. Hypoglycemia occurs as a result of too much insulin, not enough food, or excessive activity. If able, the nurse should confirm hypoglycemia with a blood glucose reading. Glucose is administered orally immediately; the rapid-releasing sugar (such as honey) is followed by a complex carbohydrate and protein, such as a slice of bread or a peanut butter cracker. An extra snack is given if the next meal is not planned for more than 30 minutes or if activity is planned. If the child becomes unconscious, cake frosting or glucose paste can be squeezed onto the gums, and the blood glucose level is retested. If the child does not improve within 15 minutes, administration of glucagon may be necessary, and the nurse should be prepared for this intervention. In the hospital setting the nurse should be prepared to administer dextrose intravenously. Encouraging the child to ambulate and administering regular insulin will result in a lowered blood glucose level. Providing electrolyte replacement therapy intravenously is an intervention to treat diabetic ketoacidosis. Waiting 30 minutes to confirm the blood glucose level delays necessary intervention.