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Middle School Science PRAXIS
Terms in this set (107)
which of the following characteristics is most important in demonstrating that a hypothesis should be called a theory?
it provides an explanation for the results of many experiments
which of the following is a function of mitosis in humans?
repair of damaged tissue
an animation of which of the following is most likely to be included in a lesson about how stars are formed?
a cloud of gas contracting and heating up
to probe whether students have misconceptions about mass and weight, a teacher asks them to consider two identical objects, one of the surface on the moon. which of the following student statements a correct understanding about mass and weight?
the objects have the same mass, but the object on earth weighs more than the object on the moon
which of the following pieces of equipment would be most useful in a middle school classroom activity with the goal of distinguishing the organisms in a drop of pond water?
which of the following best explains how igneous rocks are formed?
molten material cools and hardens
which of the following best describes how forces produce tides?
the moon exerts a gravitational force on the water in the ocean
the consequences of which of the following human activities would be the most reasonable basis for a classroom discussion on the eutrophication of a body of water?
use of fertilizers in agriculture
five breeding pairs of guppies are placed in a large classroom aquarium that contains aquatic plants, algae, and small invertebrates. the guppies are the only fish in the aquarium and have plenty of food. guppies can reproduce very quickly. which of the following is most likely to happen to the population of guppies in the tank?
the population size will initially increase rapidly, but eventually the population growth rate will decrease as the guppies food is consumed faster than it is replaced
the refraction of light underlies the operation of which three of the following?
a magnifying glass, a pair of binoculars, a motion-picture projector
which of the following statements best describes the heliocentric model?
earth and the other planets orbit the sun.
which of the following is an example of asexual reproduction?
the budding of a new hydra from a parent hydra. asexual reproduction only has one parent, so the offspring are essentially clones of the parent
which of the following is most likely to occur in a person who is actively exercising?
increased breathing rate
of the following elements, which is most abundant in earth's crust?
which two of the following are appropriate laboratory safety standards?
an emergency shower is located within a travel time of 10 seconds, closed-toe shoes should always be worn
which of the following best describes the use of a nonrenewable resource?
a nuclear power plant using uranium fuel
the enzymes found in living organisms serve principally as
which of the following questions to students would best help a teacher assess their knowledge of transpiration?
what is the role of plants in the water cycle? transpiration is the evaporation of water from the leaves and stems of a plant to the atmosphere
during an investigation, a student dissolves a sample of ammonium chloride in water and records that the temperature of the mixture drops from 48 degrees Celsius to 38 degrees celsius. select the term from each drop-down menu to complete the sentence.
the dissolution process is __________ because thermal energy is _________ from the solution.
when the bones of the human arm and the bones of a bat wing are compared, many similarities are observed. these similarities are examples of
which of the following describes the principle that is most directly related to the ability to explain geologic evidence from the past?
geologic processes acted in the same way and with about the same intensity in the past as they do today
the diagram shown represents a circuit consisting of a 9-volt battery connected to a lightbulb with a resistance of 3ohms. based on the ohm's law, what is the current through the lightbulb?
a child at the top of a slide has gravitational potential energy equal to E. if air resistance and friction are negligible, which of the following is true about the potential energy and the kinetic energy of the child just as the child reaches the bottom of the slide?
potential energy: 0 Kinetic energy: E
students create a model of a cell city in which each of the organelles corresponds to a function in the city. which of the following organelles in a plant cell is represented by a warehouse that stores important materials that are needed by the city for later usee?
which statement best describes the general direction of movement of weather systems affecting the continental United States?
most weather systems move from west to east
a teacher explains that the periodic table organizes the elements into columns based on the similarity of their chemical properties. for example, the similarities of elements in column 1 can primarily be attributed to
having the same number of valence electrons
which of the following best describes an ecosystem?
it is all the organisms in a given area and the abiotic factors with which the organisms interact
an investigation to study the factors that affect the rate of reaction is conducted. in an experiment, one calcium carbonate tablet each is added to equal volumes of hydrochloric acid with different concentrations. the mass of carbon dioxide gas produced over time is recorded. which of the following is the independent variable in the experiment?
the concentration of hydrochloric acid
if a flat object is placed 3 meters in front of a plane mirror, the image will be formed
3 meters behind the surface of the mirror
in pea plants, the allele for round peas (R) is dominant to the allele for wrinkled peas (r). if a true-breeding pea plant produces round seeds (RR) is crossed with a true-breeding pea plant that produces wrinkled seeds (rr), what percentage of the offspring plants are expected to produce round seeds?
a manufacturer is designing a new shoe with the goal of minimizing the total force felt by a person landing on the ground after jumping. which of the following processes will best help the manufacturer improve the design?
develop a prototype, test it, modify the shoe's sole, and retest under the same conditions
which of the following is a function of the root system of a flowering plant?
absorbing minerals from the soil
scientists investigating the abyssal plain of the ocean floor are likely to observe which three of the following?
crustaceans and mollusks, high water pressure, average water temperatures of 2 degrees celsius
which of the following is the correct name for Ca(NO3)2
which of the following plants does not produce flowers or seeds and uses spores for reproduction?
a sample contains 8 g of a radioisotope that has a half-life of 10 years. how much time is required for the sample to decay until approximately 1 g of the isotope remains in the sample?
a book is at rest on a tabletop. a teacher asks students to sketch the forces exerted on the book. which of the following student diagrams best depicts all the forces exerted on the book?
the force of gravity directed downward, and the force exerted by the table directed upward
when lions prey on antelopes in the savannas of Africa, the faster antelopes are more likely to escape than the slower antelopes are. which of the following best describes how this situation exemplifies natural selection?
organisms with favorable adaptions are more likely to survive
an alkaline battery converts which of the following forms of energy into electrical energy?
barium reacts with oxygen gas to form barium oxide, BaO. which of the following is produced in a similar reaction with oxygen gas?
which of the following is true about volcanic activity on earth?
it usually occurs at tectonic plate boundaries
an addition of 4.2 J of thermal energy is needed to increase the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degrees celsius. how much thermal energy needs to be added to increase the temperature of a 100 g sample of water by 30 degrees ceslius?
which of the following is the primary function of the plasma membrane in a cell?
serving as a barrier to separate the cell from the environment
earth's seasons in the temperate regions are caused by
the tilt of earth on its axis as it revolves around the sun
of the following equations, which represents a combustion reaction?
2 Ch3OH + 3 O2 -----> 2 CO2 + 4H2O
which of the following parts of a compound microscope is used to regulate the amount of light transmitted through the specimen on a slide?
a teacher provides the following examples of a benefit to humans provided by trees. trees in a forest may be cut down and used by humans as a natural resource. which three of the following are examples of benefits provided by the trees that are left to grow in the forest?
they will absorb and store carbon from the atmosphere, they will help reduce soil erosion and stormwater runoff, they will provide habitats for a variety of other species
according to the solar nebular theory, the planetesimals that clumped together to form earth were composed of which of the following materials?
interstellar dust and rocky debris
a net force of 6 N exerted on an object with a mass of 2 kg gives it an acceleration of 3 m/s^2. if the net force acting on the object is doubled, what is the acceleration of the object?
which of the following correctly lists the first appearance of organisms in the fossil record from earliest to most recent?
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds
which three of the following are examples of physical weathering?
a crack forms in a boulder that is exposed to the intense heat of a forest fire, a tree root enlarges a crack in a rock as the root grows, a crevice in a rock widens as water collected there repeatedly freezes and thaws
of the following, which is the best description of a covalent bon between two atoms?
a pair of valence electrons is shared between the atoms
to engage students in a discussion about distinguishing between living and nonliving things, a teacher presents the image shown of a bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria. which of the following questions should the teacher ask to best help facilitate the discussion?
how does the bacteriophage reproduce?
which of the following elements is often used in integrated circuits (microchips)?
a student claims that all metals are attracted to magnets. to refute the claim, another student places an object made of copper near the bar magnet. the students observe that the copper object is not attracted to the bar magnet. which of the following statements bets explains the observation?
the copper object does not form a north pole and a south pole
the loud chirping noises made by crickets serve as the primary means by which crickets
when the sun, the moon, and earth are aligned as shown in the figure, which of the following could probably be observed at point X on earth?
a solar eclipse
based on its position on the periodic table, which of the following elements is most likely to have luster and mallebility?
which of the following biomes is characterized by cold temperatures, a short growing season, low annual precipitation, and sparse, low-growing vegetation?
which of the following student responses to a question about the overall topography of the ocean floor is most accurate?
the ocean floor has features that are similar to features on land, such as mountains, plains, and canyons
scientific disciplines obtain knowledge through collecting and analyzing empirical evidence. which of the following student learning experiences best illustrates this process?
students plan and perform an investigation in which they measure the mass and volume of unknown materials kept the same temperature to determine and compare the materials' densities
volcanic island arcs like the Aleutian Islands in the northern Pacific Ocean are formed along which of the following?
a convergent boundary
a mixture of 7 g of iron filings and 4 g of sulfur is heated in a test tube until the entire mixture glows bright red. after cooling, the test tube and contents are weighed. the empty tube weighs 17g. assuming that no atmospheric gases were involved in the reaction, the total mass of the test tube and its contents should be approximately
a drop of water containing green plant cells and a type of bacterium that is attracted to oxygen is placed on a glass slide, and the drop is sealed with a coverslip having grease around the edges. when the slide is illuminated, a process will occur in which of the following plant cell structures that will cause the bacteria to move toward the plant cells?
which of the following resources will best facilitate student understanding of the characteristics of stars at different stages in their life cycles?
a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
plants that are typically pollinated by moths most likely have which of the following features?
flowers that open at night
the use of which three of the following fuels to produce electricity contributes significantly to global climate change?
coal, oil, natural gas
a student pours a sample of a saturated aqueous solutions of a salt into a test tube and seals the tube. there is an air space above the liquid, and there are no undissolved solids in the tube. when the temperature of the tube is lowered, some solid appears in the tube. what is the most reasonable explanation for this occurrence?
the amount of salt that needs to be dissolved to make a saturated solution decreases as the temperature decreases
a student accidentally touches a hot plate and immediately withdraws his or her hand. the nerve impulse follows which of the following pathways to produce the almost instantaneous response?
sensory neuron--> spinal cord---> motor neuron---> muscle
which of the following factors plays the greatest role in determining the climate of a given location?
lymphocytes have which of the following functions in the human body?
the defend the body from foreign substances
the presence of which of the following features on Mars would best support the claim that there was once flowing water on the surface of Mars?
meandering stream patterns composed of sediment
which of the following household chemicals is most likely to be effective at neutralizing a base?
a group of students measured the boiling point of three different samples of pure water. each measurement was made by a different student using the same thermometer. their measurements were 94, 99, and 104. which of the following most likely accounts for the discrepancy in the measurements?
the students misread the markings on the thermometer
the process of DNA replication typically results in the formation of
two identical DNA molecules
which of the following phenomena are primarily responsible for the formation of the Grand Canyon?
uplift and erosion
a student speaking in the hallway outside a classroom can be clearly heard by students in the classroom but cannot be seen through the open door of the classroom. which of the following best explains why?
sound waves can bend enough to pass around the edges of the door, but light waves cannot
transport of water and inorganic nutrients in vascular plants from the roots to the shoots occurs in which of the following?
the challenger deep is the deepest surveyed location in the oceans. the challenger deep is most likely associated with which of the following features?
dodders, vines with a string-like appearance, produce little to no chlorophyll to support photosynthesis. instead, dodders obtain nutrients primarily by producing structures that penetrate into the vascular systems of other living plants. the plants penetrated by the dodders become weakened and more susceptible to diseases. based on the information presented, the interaction between dodders and other plants best illustrates which of the following types of interspecific relationships?
which of the following objects exerts the greatest gravitational force on another object located 5 million kilometers away?
students were asked to predict the outcome of mitosis in a body cell with 36 chromosomes. which of the following student predictions is correct?
number of daughter cells: 2
number of chromosomes: 36
which of the following most accurately describes the direction in which all rivers flow?
from higher elevations to lower elevations
Br2, a red-brown liquid at 20 degrees Celsius, is classified as
a certain species of plant has bright red flowers. which of the following most likely explains why the red color is considered an adaption of the plant?
the plant is pollinated by hummingbirds, which can see red very well
instruments at a school weather station include an anemometer, a barometer, and a hygrometer. which of the following indicates what is measured by the instruments?
anemometer: wind speed
barometer: air pressure
a teacher uses an activity that focuses on the design of a facility that makes fuels to generate energy using carbon dioxide captured directly from the atmosphere. the students are asked to determine if the area of land needed to build the facility is an engineering design criterion or a constraint. which of the following student statements provides the best determination and explanation?
it is a constraint because it could limit the size of the facility and, therefore, the amount of carbon dioxide captured.
C6H12O6 + 6 O2---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
a student models aerobic cellular respiration by writing the net chemical equation shown. which of the following modifications of the equation would best help improve the model?
adding "energy" to the product side
which of the following statements about the oldest fossils on earth is correct?
they are found in rock that is over 3 billion years old
the presence of which of the following cellular structures distinguishes a prokaryotic cell from a eukaryotic cell?
a nuclear envelope
which of the following, in order of occurrence, lists the stages of the life cycle of a star that has approximately the same mass as the sun?
main sequence, red giant, white dwarf
which of the following best explains why a rubber raft that is slightly underinflated with air when in the shade is observed to be more fully inflated when placed in sunlight?
the temperature of the air inside the raft increases, causing the pressure of the air to increase
the grass gets energy from ____, and the energy is used by the grass to make ____
sunlight, organic compounds
which of the following is an example of an object moving with constant speed?
a cart freely gliding along a horizontal frictionless track
which of the following types of precipitation forms when water vapor changes directly from a gas to a solid in the atmosphere?
which of the following is an example of a chemical change?
to determine the volume of a metal block, students measure the length of its sides using a metric ruler with one-millimeter markings. based on the precision of the ruler, which of the following sets of student measurements is recorded with the correct number of significant figures?
1.25 cm, 1.25 cm, 5.00 cm
a student placed 20 radish seeds on a damp paper towel in a petri dish under a fluorescent light. after 48 hours, all the seeds had germinated. in order for the student to draw a valid conclusion about the effect of water on seed germination, which of the following should also have been included in the investigation?
a second dish with a dry, rather than damp, paper towel should have been used
which of the following planets in the solar system takes the greatest number of earth days to revolve around the sun?
a teacher introduces a unit on genetics by showing the results of Mendel's experiments with pea plants. which of the following statements represents a valid conclusion students can make based on Mendel's rsults?
separate traits are passed independently from parents to offspring
a teacher presents the diagram shown, which represents undeformed layers of sedimentary rock where fossil X is found several meters above fossil Y. based on the diagram, which of the following student claims about the fossils best demonstrates a correct understanding of the principle of superposition?
fossil X is younger than fossil Y
which of the following is an organic compound?
which of the following practices generally reduces the amount of soil erosion?
growing crops in a previously empty field
proteins are composed of which of the following?
which of the following best describes an epicenter?
the position on earth's surface that lies directly above the point inside earth where an earthquake originates
which of the following conditions would most likely be associated with the passage of a cold front?
gusty winds and cumulonimbus clouds that produce heavy rain
which of the following is the best example of the application of biotechnology to reduce a local environmental problem?
genetically modifying a food crop to require fewer presticides
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