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Exam 2: Amylase and Lipase
Terms in this set (21)
Group of enzymes that degrade starches (complex carbohydrates) into simple sugars (glucose)
What is amylase?
Largest amounts found in salivary glands and pancreas
About 60% of normal serum amylase is from salivary glands
About 40% is from the pancreas
Where is the largest amount of amylase found?
Smaller amounts found in intestine, Fallopian tubes, ovaries, testis, skeletal muscle, lung, liver, thyroid, tonsils, adipose tissue
Where is the smallest amounts of amylase found?
Amylase-P = pancreas; amylase-S = salivary
Expensive, only available in a few labs and not very accurate in determining the source of the elevated amylase
What are amylase isoenzymes?
Adults: 25-125 U/L
What is the normal range for amylase?
Renal (amylase will elevate if kidneys can not filter it out)
What is amylase clearance by?
Rise quickly - within 2-12 hours
Peaks after 12-30 hours
Lasts only 3-4 days (short half-life)
Properties of amylase
80% of subjects with acute pancreatitis have elevated serum amylase within 24 hours (can miss 20%)
Not very specific for pancreatitis
What is the sensitivity and specificity of amylase?
Blockage of salivary glands
Blockage of pancreas
Direct pancreatitic trauma (steering wheel)
What are some causes of high amylase?
Urine amylase peaks later and last longer (up to 7-10 days) than serum amylase
Good for late presenters of acute pancreatitis
urine amylase vs serum amylase
it suggests a pancreatic cause for the ascites (ruptured pseudocyst, pancreatic cancer)
If ascites contain amylase, what does it suggest?
A mainly pancreatic enzyme that degrades (hydrolyzes) triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acid
Primarily used for diagnosing pancreatitis
Nearly all serum lipase is synthesized in the pancreas
What is lipase?
Normal Adults: < 160 U/L
Critical values: > 3x upper limit normal
Ranges for lipase:
Rises within 4-8 hours (a bit slower than amylase)
Peaks in 12-30 hours
Remains elevated for 7-10 days (much longer half-life than amylase)
Properties of lipase:
Lipase remains well after the amylase level has dropped, making it (along with urine amylase) useful in diagnosing acute pancreatitis in late presenters
Why is lipase more useful than amylase for late presenters of pancreatitis?
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