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as the Romans recognized the potential of concrete, which had been invented in the ancient Near East, so too they devel[1]oped the arch and the vault (fig. 9.1), which had previously been used in the ancient Near East and Etruria. The round arch may be thought of as a curved lintel used to span an opening. A true arch is constructed of tapered (wedge[1]shaped) bricks or stones, called voussoirs, with a keystone at the center. The point at which the arch begins to curve from its vertical support is called the springing, because it seems to spring away from it. The arch creates an outward pressure, or thrust, which must be countered by a supporting buttress of masonry. The arch is the basis of the vault—an arched roof made by a continuous series of arches forming a passageway. A row of round arches produces a barrel or tunnel vault, so called because it looks like the inside of half a barrel or the curved roof of a tunnel. It requires continuous buttressing and is a dif[1]ficult structure in which to make openings for windows. Vaults formed by a right-angled intersection of two identical barrel vaults are called groin or cross vaults. Arches and vaults have to be supported during the process of construction. This is usually done by building over wooden frames known as centerings, which are removed when the keystone is in place and the mortar has set. A dome is made by rotating a round arch through 180 degrees on its axis. In its most basic form, it is a hemisphere. As is true of arches and vaults, domes must be buttressed, and, since their thrust is equally dispersed in all directions, the but[1]tressing must be from all sides. Domes can be erected on circu[1]lar or square bases. Ancient Roman domes, such as the one on the Pantheon (see fig. 9.16), were generally set on round bases. Domes on square bases are discussed in Chapter 10.
Venice was a port city and an international center of trade throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Because it was built on water, it had an effect on painters different from that of other Italian cities. Its soft light, at once muted and reflected by its waterways, has influenced painters up to the present day. During the Renaissance, Venice was a republic, which remained invulnerable to foreign attack. The Venetian constitution had lasted since the late thirteenth century, fostering relative political continuity despite upheavals in other Italian states. By 1500, the city had been free of foreign domination for about one thousand years, a fact that contributed to the so-called myth of Venice. Venice considered itself a harmonious blend of the best qualities of different types of government—the freedom of democracy; the elegant, aristocratic style of oligarchy; and the stability of monarchy. Under its constitution, Venice was ruled by patrician senators who formed the Great Council, which emphasized the rule of law. This led to greater stability, as well as to greater political repression, than in Florence. In the early fifteenth century, the visual arts were somewhat more conservative in Venice than in Florence. They were rooted in Byzantine and Gothic tradition, and Venetian taste was more in tune with the rich colors and elaborate patterns of the International Style. More so than in Florence and Rome, Venetian artists tended to receive their training in family-run workshops maintained for several generations. A major reason for the durability of this tradition was the fact that visual art was still considered a manual craft in Venice—the profession of painting was closely controlled by the Painters' Guild, the Arte dei Depentori. In Florence, on the other hand, painting had attained the higher intellectual status of a liberal art. One of the most successful examples of the familyworkshop tradition in Venice is the Bellini family. The brothers Gentile (c. 1429-1507) and Giovanni (c. 1432-1516) were major artists of their time and influenced High Renaissance developments in Venice. Their sister married Andrea Mantegna, whose interest in Classical antiquity Gentile and Giovanni shared.
By the second decade of the sixteenth century, after more than a thousand years of religious unity under the Roman Catholic Church, Western Christendom underwent a revolution known as the Reformation. This led to the emergence, in large parts of Europe, of the Protestant Church. During the fifteenth century the Catholic Church had become increasingly materialistic and corrupt. Particularly offensive to some was the selling of "indulgences" (a kind of credit against one's sins), which allegedly enabled sinners to buy their way into heaven. In 1517 the German Augustinian monk Martin Luther protested. He nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Saxony, a manifesto listing ninety-five arguments against indulgences. Luther criticized the basic tenets of the Roman Church. He advocated abolishing the monasteries and restoring the Bible as the sole source of Christian truth. Luther believed that human salvation depended on individual faith and not on the mediation of the clergy. In 1520 he was excommunicated. In 1529 Charles V tried to stamp out dissension among German Catholics. Those who protested were called Protestants. In the course of the next several years, most of northern and western Germany became Protestant. England, Scotland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Switzerland also espoused Protestantism. For the most part, France, Italy, and Spain remained Catholic. By the end of the sixteenth century, about one-fourth of Western Europe was Protestant. King Henry VIII of England had been a steadfast Catholic, but his wish for a male heir led him to ask the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon (in Spain), the first of his six wives. The pope refused, and Henry broke with the Catholic Church. In 1534 the Act of Supremacy made Henry, and all future English monarchs, head of the Church of England. The Reformation dealt a decisive blow to the authority of the Roman Catholic Church, and the balance of power in Western Europe shifted from religious to secular authorities. As a result, the cultural and educational dominance of the Church waned, particularly in the sciences. In the vi
the artist's political associations and Marat as the dead Christ In the Death of Marat (fig. 21.2), commissioned during the Reign of Terror, David used the principles of Neoclassi[1]cal style in the service of contemporary political events (see caption). Both David and Marat were Jacobins, a group of revolutionary extremists, and the patrons of David's paint[1]ing. David himself was elected to the National Conven[1]tion and voted to send Louis XVI to the guillotine. When Robespierre, the minister who presided over the Reign of Terror, fell, David was imprisoned twice. But he regained favor under Napoleon, who appointed him to be his impe[1]rial painter and granted him a barony. After Napoleon's exile, David left France and died in Brussels in 1825. Marat has been idealized in Classical fashion, but his body was in fact ravaged by a skin disease, from which he found relief by soaking in the bath. At the same time, though, the stab wound is visible, and the red bathwater has stained the sheet. Marat has placed a writing surface over the tub, and he holds the letter sent by his assassin, which reads: "Il suffit que je sois bien malheureuse pour avoir droit à votre bienveillance," meaning "I just have to be unhappy to merit your goodwill. The knife that Charlotte Corday has dropped on the floor beside the tub is contrasted ironically with the quill pen still in Marat's limp hand. The instrument of violence and death is thus opposed to the pen, which is associ[1]ated in this picture with revolutionary political writing. That Marat the revolutionary was stabbed by a member of a more conservative party enhances the tragic irony of David's picture. Inscribed on the crate supporting Marat's inkwell, pen, and papers is a combined personal and political message. David dedicates the painting à marat, david ("To Marat, from David") and dates it l'an deux ("the Year Two"), the second year of the French revolutionary calenda
In his own brand of Post-Impressionism, short-lived though it was, Georges Seurat (1851-91) combined Cézanne's interest in volume and structure with Impressionist subject matter. His most famous painting, Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (fig. 25.6), monumentalizes a scene of leisure by filling the space with solid iconic forms. Human figures, animals, and trees are frozen in time and space. Motion is created formally, by contrasts of color, silhouettes, and repetition, rather than by the figures. Seurat has been called a Neo-Impressionist and a Pointillist, after his process of building up color through dots, or points, of pure color; Seurat himself called this technique "divisionism." In contrast to Cézanne's outlined forms, Seurat's are separated from each other by the grouping of dots according to their color. In the detail of the girl holding the spray of flowers (fig. 25.7), the individual dots are quite clear

Formal creation of motion It is also quickly drawn rather than being built up with dots. Here the texture of the paper surface contributes to the tactile quality of the animal. It has a light edge and face, with the inner form darkened to show contour. Endowed with a sense of inherent energy, this monkey seems tense and alert

Divisionism/Pointillism Seurat has been called a Neo-Impressionist and a Pointillist, after his process of building up color through dots, or points, of pure color; Seurat himself called this technique "divisionism.

Figural studies (25.8)

Color Theory through scientific analysis Seurat's divisionism was based on two relatively new theories of color. The first was that placing two colors side by side intensified the hue of each. There is in La Grande Jatte a shimmering quality in the areas of light and bright color, which tends to support this theory. The other theory, which is only partly confirmed by experience, asserted that the eye causes contiguous dots to merge into their combined color. Blue dots next to yellow dots would thus merge and be perceived as vivid green. If the painting is viewed from a distance or through half-closed eyes, this may be true. It is certainly not true if the viewer examines the picture closely, as the illustration of the detail confirms. True or not, such theories are characteristic of the search by nineteenth-century artists for new approaches to light and color based on scientific analysis
In his best-known painting, The Scream (fig. 25.18) of 1893, Munch represents his own sense of disintegration in a figure crossing the bridge over Oslo's Christianiafjord. The bright colors—reds, oranges, and yellows— intensify the sunset, with darker blues and pinks defining the water. Both sky and water seem caught up in an endless swirl echoing the artist's anguish. His fellow pedestrians at the far end of the bridge continue on ahead, whereas he stops to face the picture plane, simultaneously screaming and holding his ears. The action of blocking out the sound pushes in the sides of his face so that his head resembles a skull and repeats the landscape curves. Munch described the experience depicted in this painting as follows: "I felt as though a scream went through nature—I thought I heard a scream—I painted this picture—painted the clouds like real blood. The colors were screaming."4 He thus joins the scream of nature as his form echoes the waving motion of the landscape
Distortion and color to create metal state
Munch suffered from paranoia including fear of heights and crowds. This image shows his panic attack while crossing a bridge. Munch is perhaps the most influential painter 20th century horror films. Many of his techniques to create discomfort such as the distorted diagonal of the bridge were used by such great film makers as Alfred Hitchcock to create suspense and tension within individual scenes.
Note: The Scream was recently stolen and recovered. This would be a good article to read for one of your assignments.
the early-twentieth-century avant-garde was receptive to new formal ideas. One of the major sources for these ideas was the growing interest in African art. The interest in such cultures was known as "primitivism."

The Baule ancestor from the Ivory Coast (fig. 26.2) typifies the African sculptures whose abstraction appealed to the Western avant-garde in the early twentieth century.
Picasso & Matisse
Gertrude Stein
In painting, two figures dominated the first half of the twentieth century: the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) and the French artist Henri Matisse (1869-1954). Both made sculptures but were primarily painters. In contrast to the experience of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists, the genius of Picasso and Matisse was recognized relatively early in their careers. Their paths crossed at the Paris apartment of Gertrude Stein, the American expatriot author, who held regular gatherings of artists and intellectuals from Europe and the United States. Picasso and Matisse began their careers in the nineteenth century under the influence of Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and Symbolism. They soon branched out—Picasso earlier than Matisse—and spearheaded the avant-garde, although their styles were quite distinct. Matisse began and ended as a colorist, with important evolutions along the way. Picasso, on the other hand, shifted from one style to another, often working in more than one mode at the same time (see Chapter 27). His first individual style was actually Symbolist; it is referred to as his "Blue Period."
"The lost generation," a phrase coined by Gertrude Stein, captured the overwhelming sense of desolation experienced by the post- World War I intellectuals. In the visual arts of that era, the same pessimism and despair emerged as Dada
The term Dada refers to an international artistic and literary movement that began during World War I in the relative safety of neutral Switzerland. Artists, writers, and performers gathered at the Cabaret Voltaire, a café in Zurich, for discussion, entertainment, and creative exploration. Dada was thus not an artistic style in the sense of shared formal qualities that are easily recognized. Rather, it was an idea, a kind of "antiart," predicated on a nihilist (from the Latin word nihil, meaning "nothing") philosophy of negation. By 1916 the term Dada had appeared in print— a new addition to the parade of aesthetic "manifestos" that developed in the nineteenth century. Dada lasted as a cohesive European movement until about 1920. It also achieved a foothold in New York, where it flourished from about 1915 to 1923
According to the 1916 Manifesto, Dada is French for a child's wooden horse. Da-da are also the first two syllables spoken by children learning to talk, and thus suggest a regression to early childhood. The implication was that artists wished to "start life over." Likewise, Dada's iconoclastic force challenged traditional assumptions about art and had an enormous impact on later twentieth-century conceptual art. Despite the despair that gave rise to Dada, however, a taste for the playful and the experimental was an important, creative, and ultimately hopeful aspect
World War I: "The Lost Generation"
1916 Manifesto
"start life over"
Conceptual Art (see your glossary)
the small collage Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing? (fig. 30.1), by the English artist Richard Hamilton (born 1922), was originally intended for reproduction on a poster. It can be considered a visual manifesto of what was to become the Pop Art movement. First exhibited in London in a 1956 show titled "This Is Tomorrow," Hamilton's collage inspired an English critic to coin the term "Pop." The muscleman in the middle of the room is a conflation of the Classical Spear Bearer (see fig. 7.14) by Polykleitos and the Medici Venus (see fig. 15.15). The giant Tootsie Pop directed toward the woman on the couch is at once a sexual, visual, and verbal pun. Advertising images occur in the sign pointing to the vacuum hose, the Ford car emblem, and the label on the tin of ham. Massmedia imagery is explicit in the tape recorder, television set, newspaper, and movie theater. The framed cover of Young Romance magazine reflects popular teenage reading of the 1950s. Despite the iconographic insistence on what was contemporary, however, Hamilton's collage contains traditional historical references. The image of a white-gloved Al Jolson on the billboard advertising The Jazz Singer recalls an earlier era of American entertainment. The oldfashioned portrait on the wall evokes an artistic past, and the silicon pinup on the couch is a plasticized version of the traditional reclining nude. Hamilton's detailed attention to the depiction of objects, especially those associated with domestic interiors, reveals his respect for fifteenthcentury Flemish painters, as well as his stated admiration for Duchamp.
One of the more interesting personalities of twentiethcentury design was R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983), philosopher, poet, architect, and engineer, as well as a cult figure among American college students. His architecture expresses his belief that the world's problems can be solved through technology. One of his first designs (1927-28) was a house he called Dymaxion, a name conflating "dynamic" and "maximum." These were key concepts for Fuller, who aimed at achieving the maximum output with the minimum energy consumption. The Dymaxion house was a prefabricated factory-assembled structure that hung from a central mast and cost no more to build than a car. A later invention was a three-wheeled Dymaxion car, but, like the house, it was never produced commercially. Buckminster Fuller is best known for the geodesic dome. It is composed of polyhedral units (from the Greek words 31.8 R. Buckminster Fuller, American Pavilion, Expo '67, Montreal, 1967. Buckminster Fuller was descended from eight generations of New England lawyers and ministers. He was expelled from Harvard twice, served in the U.S. Navy in World War I, and worked in the construction business. In 1959 he became a professor of design science at Southern Illinois University. Buckminster Fuller's abiding interest in education is revealed by his belief that all children are born geniuses. "It is my conviction from having watched a great many babies grow up," he said, "that all of humanity is born a genius and then becomes de-geniused very rapidly by unfavourable circumstances and by the frustration of all their extraordinary built-in capabilities."² poly, "many," and hedron, "side")—usually either tetrahedrons (four-sided figures) or octahedrons (eight-sided figures). The units are assembled in the shape of a sphere. This structure offers four main advantages. First, because it is a sphere, it encloses the maximum volume per unit of surface area. Second, the strength of the framework increases logarithmically in proportion to its size. This fulfills Fuller's aim of combining units to create greater strength than the units have individually. Third, the dome can be constructed of any material at very low cost. And fourth, it is easy to build. Apart from purely functional structures such as greenhouses and hangars, however, the geodesic dome has been used very little. Fuller's design for the American Pavilion at the Montreal Expo of 1967 (fig. 31.8) reveals both its utility and its curious aesthetic attraction. (The architectural principle underlying the geodesic dome is shared by a class of carbon molecules named "fullerenes," after Buckminster Fuller. They were discovered in the late 1980s, and they possess unique qualities of stability and symmetry.)